Table 5.

Effectiveness of Lead Risk Assessment Questions in Areas of Low Prevalence (<12%) of Elevated BLLs

StudySample SizePrevalence BLLs More Than or Equal to Level SpecifiedSensitivity 5 CDC Questions1Specificity 5 CDC Questions1Alternative Strategies Evaluated
Binns et al5 1393≥10 μg/dL, 2.1%69%70%Strategy: CDC questions plus list year before
Suburban Chicago,  1960 as year house was built.
 IllnoisSensitivity: ≥10 μg/dL = 86%
France et al10 2416≥10 μg/dL, 2.9%57%51%Not improved by asking about pottery, home
Urban Denver, Colorado remedies or proximity to highway/truck route.
Paulozzi et al11 334≥10 μg/dL, 9%63%57%
Vermont
Schaffer et al12 705≥10 μg/dL, 8.4%75%32%Strategy: rent home; migrant farm worker; friend/
Rural New York≥15 μg/dL, 2.1%74%31% sibling with lead poisoning; live near an industry
 likely to release lead.
Sensitivity: ≥10 μg/dL = 88%, ≥15 μg/dL = 100%
Schonfeld et al13 1085≥15 μg/dL, 0.8%66%67%
Suburban Connecticut
Snyder et al14 247≥10 μg/dL, 7.7%32%80%Strategy: plays in or puts dirt in mouth; been in
Public clinics, California≥20 μg/dL, 2.0%60%80% Latin America; has ever been given home remedies;
 uses pottery or ceramics for cooking, eating or
 drinking; lives within 1 block of a freeway.
Sensitivity: ≥10μg/dL = 90%, ≥20 μg/dL = 100%
Tejeda et al15 485≥10 μg/dL, 6%87%75%
San Francisco, California