Table 5.

Percent of Births with Selected Characteristics, by Race of Mother: United States, Final 1980, 1990, 1996, Preliminary 1997

CharacteristicAll Races*WhiteBlack
199719961990198019971996199019801997199619901980
Mother
 <20 Years of age12.812.912.815.611.311.310.913.522.522.823.126.5
 Unmarried32.432.428.018.425.825.720.411.069.169.866.555.3
 <12 Completed years of school16.217.616.217.117.219.6
 16 Or more completed years of school25.420.126.921.713.09.4
 Smoker§13.618.414.719.410.215.9
Medical risk factors during pregnancy
 Diabetes2.62.12.62.22.51.8
 Pregnancy-associated hypertension3.62.73.62.83.82.7
Health care utilization
 First trimester prenatal care82.581.975.876.384.784.079.279.272.371.460.662.4
 Midwife-attended births6.53.91.76.33.71.57.04.52.6
 Cesarean delivery rate20.820.722.720.720.623.021.821.722.1
Infant
 Birth weight
  VLBW1.41.41.31.21.11.11.00.93.03.02.92.5
  LBW7.57.47.06.86.56.35.75.713.013.013.312.7
Multiple births per 1000
 Live births in twin deliveries (not percent)25.922.618.925.822.118.129.126.524.0
 Live births in higher-order multiple
 deliveries (not percent)
1.50.70.41.70.80.40.70.50.2
  • —, Indicates comparable data not available for this period.

  • * Includes races other than white and black.

  • Data for 1980 based on 100% of births in selected states and on a 50% sample of births in all other states.

  • Includes mothers 20 years of age and older.

  • § Excludes data for California, Indiana, New York (but includes New York City), and South Dakota, which did not require reporting of tobacco use.

  • VLBW is birth weight <1500 g (3 lb, 4 oz), and LBW is birth weight <2500 g (5 lb, 8 oz).