Table 1.

Characteristics of Study Population*

Human Milk (n = 123)Formula (n = 89)PValue
Infant factors
 Gestational age (wk)28.2  ± 2.327.8  ± 2.4NS
 Birth weight (g)1061  ± 251988  ± 242.03
 Apgar score at 1 minute (median) 5.0 5.0NS
 Apgar score at 5 minutes (median) 8.0 8.0NS
 Respiratory distress syndrome86.091.0NS
 Bronchopulmonary dysplasia52.261.7NS
 Patent ductus arteriosus62.058.4NS
 Intraventricular hemorrhage (grades 3 or 4)13.715.1NS
 NPO (days)11.4  ± 10.511.1  ± 12.2NS
 Total parenteral nutrition (d)18.4  ± 15.619.9  ± 21.3NS
 Days to first enteral feeding9.5  ± 10.111.5  ± 15.2NS
 Days to regain birth weight17.0  ± 7.817.1  ± 7.1NS
 Blood transfusions7.1  ± 10.06.5  ± 9.9NS
 Mechanical ventilation (d)16.9  ± 22.115.9  ± 21.2NS
 Supplemental oxygen (d)34.6  ± 36.830.6  ± 29.3NS
 Length of NICU stay (d)75.8  ± 36.670.7  ± 30.6NS
Maternal factors%%
 Married74.643.4<.0001
 Prenatal care92.277.8.004
 Pregnancy-induced hypertension14.718.5NS
 Gestational diabetes 6.6 5.0NS
 Premature rupture of membranes before 37 weeks gestation45.939.1NS
 Prolonged premature rupture of membranes (>24 h)32.828.7NS
 Smoking (any or none) 6.231.2<.0001
 Alcohol use (any or none) 1.712.1.003
 Illegal drug use (any or none) 1.725.9<.0001
  • * All continuous data are mean ± SD. Categorical data are expressed as percents.