Table 1.

Medical and Sociodemographic Characteristics of 530 Mother–Infant Pairs in Butare, Rwanda, 1989–1994a }

VariableGroup 1:
Mother Positive/
Infant Positive;
Mean ± SD or
% of Group
(n = 48)
Group 2:
Mother Positive/
Infant Negative;
Mean ± SD or
% of Group
(n = 206)
Group 3:
Mother Negative/
Infant Negative;
Mean ± SD or
% of Group
(n = 276)
Infant
Birth weight (g) ± SD2539  ± 431 2772  ± 4292824  ± 408
Gender
 Male50%45%56%
 Female50%55%44%
Gestational age (wk)
 <3811% 6% 6%
 38–3929%27%26%
 4051%50%48%
 ≥41 9%17%20%
 Mean ± SD39.1  ± 1.6* 39.6  ± 1.239.6  ± 1.3
Maternal sociodemographics
Age (y)
 15–19 8% 7% 4%
 20–2442%44%35%
 25–2942%42%42%
 ≥30 8%7%18%
 Mean ± SD26.0  ± 5.525.9  ± 5.028.2  ± 6.1
Parity
 040%34%24%
 1–242%45%32%
 ≥319%21%44%
Marital status
 Single27%15% 5%
 Married, legal10%19%43%
 Married, common law54%62%50%
 Divorced/widowed 8% 4%2%
Income (monthly, RwF)
 0–49923%32%37%
 500–249949%36%45%
 ≥250028%32%18%
Education (y)
 026%16%27%
 1–421%25%31%
 5–838%48%37%
 ≥915%12% 4%
Maternal health
Cigarettes (number/d)
 083%89%93%
 ≥117%11% 7%
Syphilis serology (RPR)
 Negative 8%11% 6%
 Positive92%89%94%
Self-reported history of STD
 None44%65%85%
 At least one56%35%15%
Arm circumference (cm)
 <2238%27%25%
 22–2342%39%35%
 ≥2421%35%40%
Malaria parasitemia
 Number with data27128118
 Detected11.1%16.4%7.6%
 Not detected88.9%83.6%92.4%
Height (cm) ± SD158.9  ± 6.0159.2  ± 6.1158.7  ± 5.7
Hematocrit ± SD33.1  ± 5.933.5  ± 6.034.5  ± 5.5
Lymphocyte measures ± SD
 Number with data29131113
 CD4 percent0.28  ± 0.12* 0.35  ± 0.100.47  ± 0.08
 CD4/CD8 ratio0.63  ± 0.48* 0.88  ± 0.451.72  ± 0.60
 Natural logarithm of CD4:CD8 ratio−0.70  ± 0.70 −0.26  ± 0.550.48  ± 0.36
  • * P ≤ .05;

  • P ≤ .01;

  • P ≤ .001 using a χ2 test for homogeneity for categorical variables. For continuous variables, group 1 and group 3 were compared with group 2, using the same linear regression model for both t tests.

  • a For all variables, data were available for >93% of mother–infant pairs, except for lymphocyte measures taken prenatally or within 100 days' postpartum and malaria parasitemia. Percentage totals may not add to 100 because of rounding.

  • 140 Rwandan francs (RwF) = 1 US dollar in 1992.