Table 4.

Adjusted Estimated RR of Child Behavior Problems, as Estimated by the OR, by Maternal Smoking Before, During, and After Pregnancy

Cigarettes per dayInternalizingSATExternalizing
RR1RR2RR3RR1RR2RR3RR1RR2RR3
Prepregnancy
 None111111111
 1–90.740.660.610.760.770.730.980.960.93
 10–190.990.900.880.840.740.730.790.760.76
 ≥200.960.860.740.620.54* 0.47* 1.011.000.93
FCV
 None111111111
 1–90.780.780.711.231.060.961.71* 1.66* 1.52
 10–190.750.710.621.421.151.032.28* 2.20* 2.03*
 ≥200.620.630.551.87* 1.821.642.37* 2.41* 2.16*
Late pregnancy
 None111111111
 1–91.351.421.470.971.091.150.650.700.76
 10–191.421.441.471.101.171.190.740.800.77
 ≥201.901.862.121.281.431.640.970.981.13
6 Months
 None111111111
 1–90.830.770.790.900.680.690.600.54* 0.52*
 10–190.890.881.001.59* 1.041.180.790.690.76
 ≥200.960.991.041.63* 1.011.010.840.760.76
5 Years
 None111111111
 1–90.930.860.771.161.221.111.75* 1.65* 1.52
 10–191.281.201.191.50* 1.64* 1.63* 1.91* 1.87* 1.87*
 ≥201.421.311.081.401.381.171.60* 1.54* 1.29
  • Abbreviations: RR1, adjusted for smoking at other times; RR2, adjusted for smoking at other times and social and biological factors listed in text; RR3, adjusted for smoking at other times, social, and biological factors listed in text and maternal mental health at first antenatal visit and at 5 years.

  • * 95% CI excludes unity.