Adjusted ORs and Mean Differences for Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Health, Health Care, and Interactions With Health Care Providers for Black and Hispanic Children 4 to 35 Months of Age in the United States in 2000

MeasureOR or Mean Difference (95% CI)
Health status
    Uninsured*1.57 (0.94–2.63)2.16 (1.32–3.52)
    Child's health not excellent or very good1.95 (1.23–3.10)1.19 (0.70–2.01)
Parental satisfaction with child's health care provider
    Parent not very likely to recommend child's well-child care provider1.21 (0.65–2.23)1.87 (1.05–3.35)
    Health care provider never or only sometimes understands child's specific needs1.45 (0.90–2.35)2.34 (1.45–3.78)
    Health care provider never or only sometimes understands how parent prefers to rear child1.56 (1.09–2.22)1.50 (1.05–2.15)
Child assigned regular care provider2.70 (1.08–6.76)2.33 (1.02–5.32)
Topics discussed with parent by child's health care provider
    Violence in community2.13 (1.08–4.18)2.17 (1.13–4.16)
    Smoking in household1.82 (1.19–2.79)1.37 (0.87–2.17)
    Use of alcohol or drugs in household1.88 (1.31–2.69)1.49 (1.02–2.16)
    Trouble paying for child's needs1.66 (1.01–2.73)1.20 (0.72–2.00)
    Spouse/partner supportive of parenting efforts1.59 (1.12–2.26)1.38 (0.96–1.99)
    Child care arrangements2.01 (1.41–2.87)1.26 (0.86–1.84)
    Importance of reading to child1.60 (1.11–2.29)1.17 (0.81–1.67)
Use of health services§
    Mean no. of calls to doctor's office in past year−1.03 (−1.76 to −0.30)−1.00 (−1.79 to −0.21)
    ≥1 ED visits in past year1.47 (1.02–2.13)1.34 (0.91–1.96)
Child not referred to specialist by health care provider1.70 (1.04–2.75)1.67 (1.03–2.71)
  • Data are from the 2000 NSECH. Racial/ethnic differences are expressed as the adjusted OR or mean difference for each outcome, compared with white children. All ORs and mean differences are adjusted for health insurance (except when health insurance is the dependent variable), survey language (English versus Spanish), child's health status (by parental report), poverty, child's age, mother's educational attainment and age, number of children in the household, and usual place for medical care. Only racial/ethnic disparities that persisted as statistically significant after adjustment in multivariate analyses are listed.

  • * At any time in the past 12 months.

  • By parental report.

  • Applies only to children (n = 930) whose parents affirmatively answered the question, “Is there a particular doctor or other health care provider that you usually take your child to for well-child care?”

  • § Within the past 12 months, or since birth for children <12 months of age.

  • Expressed as mean difference in the number of calls made in the past year (or since birth for children <12 months of age), compared with whites.