TABLE 4.

Likelihood Ratios for Meningitis of Nonneurologic Symptoms, Signs, and Laboratory Findings

No MeningitisMeningitisCrude Likelihood RatioALR
History of fever
    Absent67060.440.34
    Present3817851.101.13
History of difficulty breathing
    Absent3106651.03
    Present1381260.93
History of vomiting
    Absent2940651.09
    Present1547260.83
History of diarrhea
    Absent3366821.201.18
    Present112190.390.41
Tachypnea
    Absent2823540.96
    Present1662351.06
Irregular respiration
    Absent4353830.94
    Present13282.99
Respiratory distress
    Absent3380660.96
    Present1111251.11
Cyanosis
    Absent4457890.980.98
    Present2923.392.82
Crepitations on auscultation
    Absent3767750.98
    Present720161.10
Capillary refill time
    <3 s4368870.98
    ≥3 s11941.66
Peripheral pulse volume
    Normal4189820.97
    Weak30291.47
Palpable central/peripheral temperature gradient
    Absent3649680.92
    Present837231.35
Axillary temperature
    <36°C18161.65
    36–38.9°C3162610.96
    ≥39°C1142231.00
Visible severe wasting
    Absent3990831.02
    Present49780.79
Palmar pallor
    Absent3381711.04
    Present1106200.89
Malaria parasite slide
    Negative2413751.531.72
    Positive2056160.380.29
  • — indicates that the sign was not potentially clinically useful (ALR >0.67 and <1.5).