Table 4.

Probability of Avoidable, ACS, or Any Hospitalization Among Children Using Any Ambulatory Care: ORs With 95% CI (n = 1.2 Million Child Quarters)*

Ambulatory Care Visits Added to the Model
Avoidable
(n = 6552)
ACS
(n = 16 116)
Any
Hospitalization
(n = 48 023)
Quarter0.99  (0.98–0.99)0.99  (0.98–0.99)0.99  (0.99–0.99)
Urban1.05  (1.04–1.05)1.04  (1.04–1.05)1.02  (1.02–1.02)
Age0.94  (0.94–0.94)0.93  (0.92–0.93)1.04  (1.03–1.03)
Male0.88  (0.84–0.92)0.91  (0.88–0.94)1.10  (1.08–1.12)
White1.10  (0.94–1.30)1.06  (0.96–1.16)1.07  (1.00–1.11)
Black1.38  (1.18–1.62)1.29  (1.17–1.42)1.35  (1.28–1.43)
AFDC0.88  (0.82–0.93)0.82  (0.79–0.85)0.60  (0.58–0.61)
SSI1.73  (1.54–1.95)2.81  (2.63–3.01)1.84  (1.77–1.91)
MAC
enrollment
0.93  (0.86–1.01)0.98  (0.94–1.03)0.82  (0.80–0.85)
Specialty visits0.91  (0.90–0.93)0.90  (0.89–0.91)0.87  (0.86–0.87)
Primary care
visits
1.11  (1.11–1.12)1.15  (1.14–1.16)1.20  (1.19–1.20)
Preventive
visits
0.70  (0.67–0.74)0.83  (0.80–0.85)0.91  (0.89–0.93)
ED visits2.11  (2.06–2.16)2.31  (2.27–2.35)2.13  (2.10–2.16)
  • * The number of ambulatory care visits was the covariate entered in the model for preventive, primary, specialty, and ED visits.

  • Any hospitalization includes avoidable or ACS as well as all other pediatric hospitalizations, except newborn, psychiatric, or long-term.

  • The MAC enrollment variable reflects enrollment on an individual level. Referent groups for gender, race, and eligibility were female, races other than white or African-American, and Medical Assistance, respectively.