Adjusted Estimate of Program Effects on Maternal Life Course

ComparisonNurse-VisitedComparison vs Nurse
LS MeanSELS MeanSEP ValueEffect Size
No. of subsequent pregnancies (birth to 72 mo)1.380.−0.22
No. of subsequent children (birth to 72 mo)−0.22
Months between births of 1st and 2nd children30.230.8534.381.33.010.26
Mental health*2199.920.48100.180.71.760.03
Months mother employed (54–72 mo)9.990.319.960.47.97−0.003
SES of current job (mother)13.060.9014.011.35.560.05
Months of AFDC (54–72 mo)8.960.367.210.54.01−0.22
Months of food stamps (54–72 mo)11.500.359.670.53.004−0.24
Months of Medicaid (54–72 mo)13.080.3411.980.52.08−0.15
Months with current partner45.002.1754.363.23.020.24
Highest grade current partner completed12.050.0812.160.12.450.07
SES of partner's current job31.631.1530.831.71.70−0.04
Proportion, %Proportion, %P ValueOdds Ratio
Mother graduated from high school/earned GED diploma65.968.5.541.12
Has current partner76.778.4.641.10
Lives with father of study child10.012.0.451.23
Subsequent miscarriage5.23.4.500.75
Subsequent abortion5.03.5.420.70
Subsequent low birth weight newborn§15.711.4.160.69
Subsequent NICU/special care admission§22.717.5.140.72
Currently using marijuana3.44.6.471.37
Moderate/heavy drinker (≥3 drinks ≥3 times/mo)
Behavioral problems attributable to substance use4.13.9.880.94
Any domestic violence, birth to age 6 y39.538.8.870.97
Child attended Head Start, preschool, day care, or early intervention, age 24–54 mo74.982.0.051.53
  • AFDC indicates Aid to Families With Dependent Children; GED, General Educational Development; NICU, neonatal intensive care unit; LS, least-squares.

  • * Standardized to mean = 100, SD = 10.

  • Socioeconomic status (SES) derived from percentile rankings of US Bureau of Census occupation codes, based on median income and median education associated with occupations.23

  • Rate per subsequent pregnancy.

  • § Rate per subsequent birth.