TABLE 2.

Background Characteristics of Participants for Whom 6-Year Assessments Were Completed

Background VariableSampleProportion, %
Comparison (N = 444)Nurse-Visited (N = 197)
MarriedWhole1.61.0
Low-resource0.41.9
Maternal race, nonblackWhole6.18.6
Low-resource5.27.5
Head of household employedWhole56.450.0
Low-resource52.049.5
Drank Alcohol in past 14 dWhole4.34.6
Low-resource5.76.6
Smoked cigarettes in past 3 dWhole8.410.2
Low-resource8.711.3
Used marijuana in past 14 dWhole1.61.0
Low-resource1.71.9
Used cocaine in past 2 wkWhole0.20.0
Low-resource0.40.0
Any drug use (screen)Whole4.24.2
Low-resource7.45.8
Any sexually transmitted disease, prerandomization*Whole33.437.6
Low-resource33.640.6
ComparisonNurse-Visited
MeanSDMeanSD
Maternal age, yWhole18.033.1918.083.21
Low-resource18.053.2818.263.90
Gestational age at randomization, wkWhole16.585.7816.605.68
Low-resource16.335.8216.755.58
Psychologic resources indexWhole100.0310.0799.5610.72
Low-resource92.235.8091.696.81
Highest grade completed, motherWhole10.241.8710.142.03
Low-resource9.871.889.662.10
Discretionary household income, $Whole1658.006976−127.606650
Low-resource−135.106443−1098.006471
% of census tract below povertyWhole34.7821.3735.9320.09
Low-resource36.8021.0535.9921.29
Housing densityWhole0.940.501.030.57
Low-resource1.040.541.130.52
Conflict with mother§Whole99.7910.35100.479.16
Low-resource101.8912.66101.3810.14
Conflict with partner§Whole99.7510.14100.569.68
Low-resource101.0711.43102.3111.42
Attitudes toward childrearing predictive of child abuseWhole99.439.62101.2810.72
Low-resource102.569.02104.719.44
  • * Diagnosis of either Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or Neisseria gonorrhoeae in current pregnancy prior to randomization.

  • Annual household discretionary income based on income subsistence standards for Medicaid eligibility, reported household income, and number of individuals in household at registration. The low value in treatment group 4 is accurate.

  • Standardized so that mean (SD) value of 100 (10).

  • § A scale was developed for this study that assessed the degree to which an individual provided emotional and material support to the mother.