Table 3.

Comparison of GDM and Control Offspring BMI z Scores and Obesity Rates by Age*

Age IntervalSample Size% ObeseBMI z Score
GDMControlsGDMControlsPValue§GDMControlsP Value
Birth582574024.021.101.06.10
Birth582553825.060.630.53.63
1–6 Months552382722.380.400.27.32
6–12 Months49224212.04−0.22−0.15.81
1–2 Years492301417.65−0.26−0.06.31
2–5 Years502301220.170.210.38.33
5–10 Years582571924.710.390.45.58
  • * Analysis excludes five offspring of insulin-treated GDM mothers.

  • Fatness at birth assessed by birth–weight ratio with large for gestational age (or obese) defined as birth–weight ratio ≥1.15.

  • Fatness at birth assessed by birth BMI with large for gestational age (or obese) defined as BMI z score ≥1.036. At all other ages, fatness is assessed by average BMI z score over the age interval with obesity defined as BMI z score ≥1.036.

  • § P value for χ2 tests.

  • P value for Wilcoxon rank sum test.