Age Interval | Sample Size | % Obese | BMI z Score | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

GDM | Controls | GDM | Controls | PValue^{§} | GDM | Controls | P Value^{‖} | |

Birth^{†} | 58 | 257 | 40 | 24 | .02 | 1.10 | 1.06 | .10 |

Birth^{‡} | 58 | 255 | 38 | 25 | .06 | 0.63 | 0.53 | .63 |

1–6 Months | 55 | 238 | 27 | 22 | .38 | 0.40 | 0.27 | .32 |

6–12 Months | 49 | 224 | 2 | 12 | .04 | −0.22 | −0.15 | .81 |

1–2 Years | 49 | 230 | 14 | 17 | .65 | −0.26 | −0.06 | .31 |

2–5 Years | 50 | 230 | 12 | 20 | .17 | 0.21 | 0.38 | .33 |

5–10 Years | 58 | 257 | 19 | 24 | .71 | 0.39 | 0.45 | .58 |

* Analysis excludes five offspring of insulin-treated GDM mothers.

↵† Fatness at birth assessed by birth–weight ratio with large for gestational age (or obese) defined as birth–weight ratio ≥1.15.

↵‡ Fatness at birth assessed by birth BMI with large for gestational age (or obese) defined as BMI

*z*score ≥1.036. At all other ages, fatness is assessed by average BMI*z*score over the age interval with obesity defined as BMI*z*score ≥1.036.↵§

*P*value for χ^{2}tests.↵‖

*P*value for Wilcoxon rank sum test.