Table 1.

Characteristics of Study Cohort

Offspring childhood weight
 (age 5–10 years)
 BMI zscore*5240.380.98
Offspring characteristics at birth
 Birth weight (g)5243617530
 Birth length (cm)51950.92.2
 Birth–weight ratio5241.060.13
 Gestational age§(weeks)52439.61.6
Parental characteristics
 Maternal age (years)52431.14.6
 Maternal prepregnant BMI51722.83.9
 Maternal obesity(%)51711
 Paternal age (years)49033.65.4
 Paternal BMI35925.53.8
 Paternal obesity(%)35922
Pregnancy-related characteristics
 Pregnancy weight gain (kg)51415.74.85
 Multiparous (%)52455
Metabolic markers of GDM
 Maternal triglyceride (mmol/L)#5221.950.67
 Maternal glucose (mmol/L)#5247.601.56
 Maternal glucose tolerance**
 Cord serum insulin (pmol/L)35211195
  • * BMI = body mass index (weight[kg]/height[m]2); see text for method ofz score calculation.

  • Obese defined as average BMI z score ≥1.036 between age 5 and 10 years.

  • See text for method of calculation.

  • § Gestational age calculated from first day of last menstrual period; eight offspring had gestational age <36 weeks.

  • Parental obesity defined as BMI ≥27.3 for mothers and ≥27.8 for fathers.

  • Based on the difference between self-reported prepregnant weight and the recorded weight at last prenatal visit.

  • # Plasma level 1 hour after 50-g, oral glucose load at 24–32 weeks' gestation.

  • ** Area under OGTT curve (see reference 17 for explanation of calculation).