TABLE 2.

Recommendations for Screening

Recommended Screening ManeuverOrganizations RecommendingOrganizations Recommending AgainstEvidence From TrialsReferences to Reviews and TrialsResults
Periodic complete physical examinationAAP, GAPS, Bright Futures; ICSI (limited recommendation)No61, 62, 64, 140
Repeated examination of the hipsCTF, Bright FuturesNo
Growth monitoringAAP, GAPS, Bright Futures, AAFP, ICSINo65, 662 trials, patient-important outcomes not considered
Blood pressure monitoringAAP, Bright Futures, ICSI, GAPS, USPSTFNo
Scoliosis screening through examinationBright FuturesNo67
Assessment for physical and sexual abuseBright Futures, GAPSCTFNo34, 140
Behavioral risk assessmentAAP, Bright Futures, ICSI, GAPSNo
Alcohol use assessmentCTF, USPSTF, GAPS, Bright FuturesNo141
Developmental assessmentAAP, Bright Futures, CTF, ICSICTF (DDST)No68, 142, 143
Visual acuity screeningAAP, CTF, ICSI, Bright FuturesNo69, 71
Amblyopia screeningAAP, CTF, ICSI, USPSTF, Bright FuturesYes731 trial of repeated screening by orthoptists in United Kingdom resulted in small decrease in amblyopia and improved visual acuity (NNT: 100)
Tuberculosis screeningAAP, Bright Futures, AAFP, ICSI, CTF, USPSTFNo
Urine screening (infection)AAP, Bright FuturesAAFP, ICSI, USPSTF, CTFNo
Hyperlipidemia screening (>2 y)AAP, AAFP, ICSI, GAPS, Bright FuturesUSPSTF (children)No74
Anemia screening (universal screening)AAP, ICSI (1 time), Bright Futures (high-risk children)USPSTF, CTF, AAPF, ICSI (annual screening of older children)No86
Lead poisoning screening (high-risk children)AAP, ICSI, CTF, AAFP, USPSTF, Bright FuturesNo75
Chlamydia screening (sexually active adolescents)AAP, ICSI, GAPS, AAFP, CTF, USPSTF, Bright FuturesYes7679Screening reduces the rate of subsequent pelvic inflammatory disease
Gonorrhea and HIV screening (high-risk sexual activity)AAP, ICSI, GAPS, AAFP, CTF, USPSTF, Bright FuturesNo
Papanicolaou (Pap) smear (18–21 y)AAP, GAPS, Bright Futures, ICSIRecommended frequency variesNo83
HPV screeningGAPS, Bright FuturesCTFNo82
Hearing screening after newborn periodAAP, CTF (subjective), ICSI, Bright FuturesCTF (objective), USPSTF (middle childhood)No
  • HIV indicates human immunodeficiency virus; DDST, Denver Developmental Screening Test.