Table 4.

Child Injection Pain and Distress Measurements (Blinded Investigator Observations)

EMLA (n = 12)Spray (n = 12)Control (n = 12)
Mean scores
 Linear VAS14.9  ± 19.9*15.4  ± 26.6*38.9  ± 25.4
 Faces VAS1.1  ± 1.2*1.0  ± 1.5*2.4  ± 1.4
 OSBD1.3  ± 1.6*1.2  ± 1.9*3.1  ± 2.1
 Cry duration (sec)10.3  ± 16.58.5  ± 21.0*38.6  ± 50.5
 GMS (+1 m)2.4  ± 1.2*2.5  ± 1.4*4.0  ± 1.7
 GMS (+5 m)1.7  ± 1.22.0  ± 1.22.5  ± 1.6
  • VAS indicates visual analog scale; GMS indicates Global Mood Scale.

  • * P < .05 for comparison between this treatment group and control.

  • Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress: number of observed pain behaviors.

    There were no significant differences between EMLA and spray groups.