Table 3.

Child Injection Pain Measurements (Parent, Child, and Nurse Observations)

EMLA (n = 21)Spray (n = 20)Control (n = 21)
Mean scores
 Linear VAS-parent23.5  ± 20.620.5  ± 26.043.3  ± 24.3
 Linear VAS-nurse21.6  ± 16.423.6  ± 22.447.2  ± 19.1
 Faces VAS-parent1.9  ± 1.6*1.6  ± 1.63.0  ± 1.7
 Faces VAS-nurse1.8  ± 1.6*1.6  ± 1.23.1  ± 1.4
 Faces VAS-child3.0  ± 2.42.0  ± 2.44.1  ± 2.3
  • VAS indicates visual analog scale.

  • * P < .05,

  • P < .01 for comparison between this treatment group and control.

    There were no significant differences between EMLA and spray groups.