Table 2.

Subject Characteristics by Treatment Group

EMLA (n = 21)Spray (n = 20)Control (n = 21)
Mean age (y)4.5  ± 0.54.5  ± 0.54.4  ± 0.3
Gender (% female)533067
Race (% black)758383
Mean VAS score–prior experience58.2  ± 30.243.4  ± 30.047.2  ± 30.9
Mean GMS score–enrollment1.5  ± 1.01.4  ± 0.82.0  ± 1.4
Mean GMS score: −1 minute2.4  ± 1.62.4  ± 1.73.1  ± 1.9
Multiple injections (%)909090
Total injections2.2  ± 0.72.2  ± 0.62.1  ± 0.5
Measles, mumps, rubella (%)918081
Varicella (%)242519
Hepatitis B (%)101510
  • VAS indicates visual analog scale; GMS indicates Global Mood Scale.

    There were no significant differences between the three groups.