TABLE 3.

Point Prevalence by Categorical Variables and Age at Testing

VARIABLEPoint Prevalence
3 Years5 Years8 Years
Overall prevalence20.9 (18.2–23.6)20.0 (17.2–22.7)19.9 (17.2–22.7)
Birth weight
    2001–2500 g20.9 (16.5–25.4)18.5 (14.1–23.0)19.6 (15.1–24.1)
    ≤2000 g21.0 (17.6–24.4)20.8 (17.4–24.3)20.2 (16.8–23.6)
Gender of child
    Male20.8 (17.0–24.6)20.7 (16.8–24.6)22.2 (18.2–26.3)
    Female21.2 (17.4–25.0)19.3 (15.5–23.1)17.7 (14.0–21.4)
Maternal education at birth
    Completed high school16.4 (13.3–19.5)18.3 (14.9–21.6)18.2 (14.9–21.6)
    Did not complete28.2 (23.4–33.0)22.8 (18.2–27.5)22.8 (18.2–27.5)
Race/ethnicity
    Black23.8 (19.9–27.7)18.1 (14.5–21.7)19.9 (16.2–23.6)
    Hispanic28.6 (19.3–37.9)34.2 (23.9–44.5)24.4 (15.1–33.7)
    White, Asian, or other14.8 (10.9–18.7)18.9 (14.5–23.3)18.9 (14.5–23.3)
Intervention group17.8 (13.7–21.9)16.5 (12.4–20.6)19.9 (15.5–24.3)
Follow-up only group23.0 (19.4–26.6)22.1 (18.5–25.7)24.4 (15.1–33.7)
Maternal psychological distress
    Case25.9 (20.4–31.3)27.7 (21.9–33.5)25.7 (20.1–31.3)
    Not case19.1 (16.0–22.1)17.1 (14.0–20.1)17.8 (14.7–20.8)
Marital status at birth
    Married16.2 (12.7–19.8)16.3 (12.6–20.0)17.1 (13.3–20.8)
    Single24.0 (19.8–28.2)21.8 (17.6–26.0)22.0 (17.8–26.2)
    Divorced, separated, or widowed32.4 (21.3–43.5)33.4 (21.1–45.6)26.4 (14.9–37.8)
Living situation at birth
    Living alone25.8 (17.1–34.5)34.1 (24.2–44.0)29.6 (20.1–39.1)
    Living with boyfriend or father18.0 (14.6–21.4)18.1 (14.7–21.6)17.3 (13.9–20.7)
    Living with relative or other24.6 (19.6–26.6)18.6 (13.9–23.3)21.6 (16.6–26.5)
Birth order
    First20.5 (16.5–24.4)16.8 (13.1–20.6)20.0 (16.0–24.0)
    Second21.9 (16.9–26.8)20.7 (15.8–25.7)20.1 (15.2–25.0)
    Third22.5 (15.1–30.0)26.2 (17.9–34.5)18.4 (11.1–25.7)
    Fourth or higher18.7 (10.4–26.9)24.1 (14.7–33.5)21.6 (12.5–30.6)
Gestational age at birth
    25–30 wk23.3 (17.0–29.6)20.4 (14.3–26.5)19.1 (13.0–25.1)
    31–34 wk19.8 (16.1–23.6)19.9 (16.0–23.8)20.9 (17.0–24.8)
    35–37 wk21.4 (16.5–26.4)19.9 (14.9–24.9)19.1 (14.2–24.0)
Trimester of first prenatal care
    First17.5 (14.3–20.6)19.0 (15.7–22.3)17.8 (14.6–21.1)
    Second26.3 (20.7–32.0)23.4 (17.7–29.1)24.2 (18.5–30.0)
    Third or none31.1 (20.6–41.7)17.2 (8.4–26.0)23.6 (13.5–33.7)
Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy
    Any17.5 (10.4–24.6)14.9 (8.0–21.8)22.0 (13.9–30.2)
    None21.5 (18.6–24.4)20.7 (17.8–23.7)19.7 (16.8–22.6)
Maternal cigarette use during pregnancy
    Any26.1 (21.0–31.2)22.5 (17.5–27.4)26.9 (21.6–32.2)
    None18.5 (15.3–21.6)18.8 (15.5–22.0)16.6 (13.5–19.7)
  • The numbers categorized as being in the clinical groups at each age for overall sample and stratified by each categorical variable as an estimate of point prevalence with 95% CI in parentheses. Birth weight has been dichotomized at 2000 g; N = 869.