TABLE 1

Characteristics of Studies Included in the Meta-analysis

SourceSample Size (response rate)Age Range, y (%girls)Bullying MeasureSymptom MeasureSymptoms ReportedAdjustment for ConfoundersStudy DesignType of Sampling
Albores-Gallo et al (2011)21340 (n/a)7–11 (n/a)Peer nomination questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireSingle scoreNoneCross-sectionalConvenience sample
Biebl et al (2011)2265 (n/a)12–20 at time 3 (52.9)Time 1: play session; time 3: self-report questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireSingle scoreGenderLongitudinalConvenience sample
Burk et al (2011)23344 (60%)7–15 (52.3)Multi-informant (self-, teacher-, parent report)Multi-informant (self-, teacher-, parent report)Single scoreNoneLongitudinalConvenience sample
Due et al (2005)24123 227 (>90%)11–15 (51)Self-report questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireHeadache, stomachache, backache, sleeping difficulties, tired in the morning, dizziness, irritable, feeling nervousAge, family affluence, countryCross-sectionalCluster random sampling
Fekkes et al (2004)72766 (100%)9–12 (50)Self-report questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireHeadache, skin problems, abdominal pain, tense muscles, feeling tired, bad appetiteGenderCross-sectionalUnknown
Fekkes et al (2006)251118 (70%)9–11 (50.3)Self-report questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireAbdominal pain, sleeping problems, headache, feeling tense, feeling tired, poor appetite, bedwettingGender, age, having friendsLongitudinalUnknown
Forero et al (1999)83918 (86%)11–15 (54.3)Self-report questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireSingle scoreClusters within schoolsCross-sectionalCluster random sampling
Gini (2008)10565 (94%)8–11 (52.9)Self-report questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireHeadache, abdominal pain, feeling tired, feeling tense, sleeping problems, dizzinessGender, ageCross-sectionalSimple random sampling
Gradinger et al (2009)26761 (95%)14–19 (51.5)Self-report questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireSingle scoreNoneCross-sectionalConvenience sample
Gruber and Fineran (2008)27522 (51%)12–17 (42.9)Self-report questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireSingle scoreNoneCross-sectionalConvenience sample
Haavet et al (2004)288316 (88%)15 (54.4)Self-report questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireHeadache, pain from neck or shoulderNoneCross-sectionalPopulation study
Hesketh et al (2010)292191 (80%)9–12 (44)Self-report questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireHeadache, abdominal painGender, age, residence, parental educationCross-sectionalSimple random sampling
Houbre et al (2006)30291 (95%)9–12 (n/a)Self-report questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireSkin conditions, sleeping disorders, digestive disorders, somatic pain, vegetative symptoms, diarrhea, and constipationNoneCross-sectionalConvenience sample
Kaltiala-Heino et al (2000)3117 643 (87%)14–16 (49.3)Self-report questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireSingle scoreAge, gender, family structure, parental educationCross-sectionalConvenience sample
Karatas and Ozturk (2011)3292 (82%)10–12 (51.1)Self-report questionnaireParent report questionnaireHeadache, abdominal pain, stomachache, backache, skin problems, restlessness, nervousness, sleeping problems, dizziness, respiratory problems, poor appetiteNoneCross-sectionalSimple random sampling
Kshirsagar et al (2007)33500 (100%)8–12 (62.4)Semistructured interviewSemistructured interviewHeadache, tummy aches, body ache, has failed, bites nails, sleep problems, vomiting, bedwettingNot specifiedLongitudinalSimple random sampling
Lien et al (2009) (sample 1)343790 (88%)15–16 (49.3)Self-report questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireHeadache; pain in neck or shoulder; pain in arm, leg, or knee; abdominal pain; back painSES, family structure, ethnicity, exposure to violence, having close friendsCross-sectionalPopulation study
Lien et al (2009) (sample 2)343790 (80%)18–19 (55.9)Self-report questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireHeadache; pain in neck or shoulder; pain in arm, leg, or knee; abdominal pain; back painSES, family structure, ethnicity, exposure to violence, having close friendsCross-sectionalPopulation study
Løhre et al (2011)35419 (100%)7–16 (n/a)Multi-informant (self-, teacher-, parent report)Self-report questionnaireStomachache, headacheGender, gradeCross-sectionalConvenience sample
Luntamo et al (2012)362215 (91%)13–18 (50)Self-report questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireHeadache, abdominal pain, sleep problemsNoneCross-sectionalPopulation study
McGee et al (2011)371806 (n/a)14–21 (51.8)Self-report questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireSingle scoreChildhood aggression, social or thought problem behaviors, poverty, physical punishmentLongitudinalPopulation study
Natvig et al (2001)38856 (83.7%)13–15 (50.6)Self-report questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireHeadache, stomachache, backache, feeling dizzy, irritability, feeling nervous, sleeplessnessGender, age, schoolCross-sectionalUnknown
Nordhagen et al (2005)3917 114 (68%)2–17 (49.1)Parent report questionnaireParent report questionnaireSingle scoreGender, age, country, living area, family situation, educationCross-sectionalStratified random sampling
Ramya and Kulkarni (2011)40500 (n/a)8–14 (32.8)InterviewInterviewHeadache, tummy ache, bedwetting, feverNoneCross-sectionalSimple random sampling
Richter et al (2007)415650 (70%–80%)11–15 (49.8)Self-report questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireSingle scoreNoneCross-sectionalCluster random sampling
Rigby (1999)1178 (28.3%)Time 1: 13.8, Time 2: 16.7 (44.9)Self-report questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireSingle scoreNoneLongitudinalConvenience sample
Schnohr and Niclasen (2006)42891 (n/a)11–15 (n/a)Self-report questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireHeadache, stomachache, sleeping difficultiesGender, ageCross-sectionalCluster random sampling
Srabstein et al (2006)4315 305 (83%)11–15 (53.5)Self-report questionnaireSelf-report questionnaireHeadache, stomachache, dizziness, backache, irritability, feeling nervous, sleeping problemsGender, age, race, overweight, maternal educationCross-sectionalCluster random sampling
Williams et al (1996)442962 (93.1%)7–10 (n/a)Semistructured interviewSemistructured interviewSleeping problems, bed wetting, headache, tummy acheNot specifiedCross-sectionalPopulation study
Wolke et al (2001)451639 (82%)6–9 (49.6)InterviewParent report questionnaireSore throat, cold or coughs, breathing problems, nausea, poor appetiteGender, school year, ethnic minorityCross-sectionalConvenience sample
  • n/a, not available.