TABLE 3.

Logistic Regression Models Showing Adjusted Odds* of Obesity (BMI ≥95th Percentile) at Various Preschool Ages

Characteristic at birth2-Year-Olds (24–35 Months; n = 6764)3-Year-Olds (36–47 Months; n = 6063)4-Year Olds (48–59 Months; n = 5089)
OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
Maternal BMI
 <18.5 kg/m20.410.21–0.810.630.36–1.100.560.31–1.00
 18.5–24.9 kg/m21.00§1.001.00
 25–29.9 kg/m21.421.13–1.791.691.35–2.101.751.40–2.18
 30–39.9 kg/m22.281.84–2.833.062.49–3.763.072.48–3.79
 ≥40 kg/m23.052.22–4.183.822.8–5.194.313.17–5.87
Birth weight for gestational age
 Small (<10th percentile)0.550.39–0.760.490.35–0.670.610.45–0.83
 Appropriate (10–89th percentile)1.001.001.00
 Large (≥90th percentile)2.331.84–2.961.591.25–2.031.691.32–2.17
Gender
 Female1.001.001.00
 Male1.100.93–1.301.411.21–1.661.271.08–1.49
Race/ethnicity (mother)
 White1.001.001.00
 Black0.990.78–1.250.820.65–1.031.020.81–1.27
 Hispanic1.871.17–3.001.470.94–2.311.200.75–1.94
 Other2.671.21–5.931.110.38–3.280.830.24–2.86
Parity
 First-born child1.331.09–1.621.421.17–1.701.341.11–1.62
 Not a first-born child1.001.001.00
Smoking in pregnancy
 No1.001.001.00
 Yes1.431.19–1.721.251.05–1.491.211.01–1.45
Pregnancy weight gain
 Quartile 1 (lowest)1.001.001.00
 Quartile 20.790.62–1.000.840.67–1.050.950.76–1.20
 Quartile 31.000.79–1.260.950.75–1.201.120.89–1.42
 Quartile 4 (highest)0.920.72–1.161.070.86–1.341.090.87–1.37
Birth year
 1992/19931.001.001.00
 19940.820.63–1.080.960.74–1.251.130.86–1.48
 19951.120.87–1.430.990.78–1.271.190.92–1.53
 19961.050.82–1.351.160.91–1.481.260.98–1.63
Maternal education
 <High school1.230.72–2.111.400.86–2.271.100.66–1.84
 Some high school1.120.9–1.381.000.82–1.220.940.77–1.16
 High school1.001.001.00
 Some college0.740.57–0.970.760.59–0.970.760.59–0.97
 College or beyond0.670.34–1.311.050.60–1.841.140.64–2.03
Marital status
 Married1.001.001.00
 Not married1.020.85–1.221.110.94–1.321.060.89–1.27
Maternal age
 <18 y0.760.52–1.110.790.55–1.120.930.66–1.32
 18–24 y1.001.001.00
 25–29 y1.210.97–1.521.230.99–1.521.200.96–1.49
 ≥30 y1.090.85–1.401.130.89–1.441.060.83–1.35
  • CI indicates confidence interval.

  • * Each column in the table represents a single model with all ORs adjusted for all other variables in the column.

  • Sample size is reduced because some cases had missing data on variables included in the regression model.

  • Measured in the first trimester of child’s gestation.

  • § OR of 1.0 indicates the referent category for each variable.

  • Mutually exclusive categories where the “Hispanic” category includes those of any race listing “Hispanic” ethnicity.

  • Net rate of pregnancy weight gain (maternal weight gain − birth weight/length of gestation).