TABLE 5.

Adjusted ORs for Discipline Practices*

YellSpankToy RemovalTime OutExplain
OR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CIOR95% CI
Child age (vs 4–9 mo)
 10–184.86(2.93–8.16)4.36(1.73–11.03)
 19–359.80(5.94–16.22)12.33(4.94–30.78)
Maternal race/ethnicity (vs white)
 Black1.25(0.77–2.03)2.17(1.22–3.84)0.74(0.35–1.53)0.71(0.36–1.38)1.51(0.48–4.75)
 Hispanic, English1.10(0.63–1.91)0.57(0.29–1.15)0.89(0.42–1.87)0.54(0.27–1.11)1.55(0.41–5.85)
 Hispanic, Spanish1.04(0.56–1.94)1.36(0.64–2.92)0.10(0.04–0.22)0.17(0.08–0.38)1.13(0.36–3.56)
 Other0.89(0.35–2.26)1.00(0.34–2.95)1.46(0.37–5.75)1.09(0.31–3.80)0.73(0.10–5.42)
Maternal age (vs ≤19)
 ≥200.70(0.36–1.37)2.17(1.07–4.43)1.38(0.44–4.35)1.17(0.44–3.09)0.41(0.11–1.47)
Maternal marital status (vs other)
 Married0.99(0.68–1.45)0.93(0.59–1.45)1.02(0.62–1.65)1.03(0.66–1.62)1.45(0.73–2.86)
Maternal education (vs <high school)
 ≥High school1.45(0.91–2.30)1.13(0.61–2.08)1.20(0.67–2.15)0.82(0.47–1.42)1.18(0.53–2.62)
Household income (vs ≤$60 000)
 >$60 0000.81(0.54–1.22)1.00(0.63–1.58)1.16(0.68–1.98)1.01(0.62–1.66)0.54(0.22–1.37)
Frustration (vs rarely/never)
 Always/sometimes3.06(2.24–4.17)2.33(1.55–3.50)1.88(1.21–2.91)1.83(1.20–2.78)2.39(1.21–4.73)
Child health status (vs other)
 Excellent/very good1.25(0.82–1.91)0.90(0.56–1.45)1.58(0.92–2.73)1.11(0.66–1.88)1.92(0.90–4.08)
Developmental risk (vs no risk)
 Some risk1.39(1.01–1.92)0.96(0.61–1.51)1.36(0.84–2.20)1.25(0.79–1.98)1.04(0.50–2.16)
Emotional well-being, mean0.99(0.98–1.00)0.99(0.98–1.00)1.00(0.99–1.02)1.00(0.99–1.02)1.01(0.99–1.03)
  • * Dependent variable is frequent use of the discipline strategy (always/sometimes).

  • Confidence intervals for variables with >1 degree of freedom (>2 categories) are adjusted for multiple comparisons by the Bonferroni method.

  • P < .05.