APPENDIX

Measurement of Child and Parenting Characteristics

VariableSurvey QuestionsResponse Categories
School PerformanceHow would you describe your grades last year?Excellent
Good
Average
Below average
Sensation seeking (6-item index; range: 0–18; Cronbach’s α = .69)I like to do scary things.Not like me
I get bored being with the same friends all the time.Sort of like me
I would like to try drinking alcohol or beer.A lot like me
I like to do dangerous things.Just like me
I often think there is nothing to do.
I like to listen to loud music.
Rebelliousness (7-item index; range: 0–21: Cronbach’s α = .73)I get in trouble in school.Not like me
I argue a lot with other kids.Sort of like me
I do things my parents wouldn’t want me to do.A lot like me
I do what my teachers tell me to do.Just like me
I sometimes take things that don’t belong to me.
I argue with my teachers.
I like to break the rules.
Self-esteem (8-item index; range: 0–24; Cronbach’s α = .74)I will be successful when I grow up.Not like me
I wish I was someone else.Sort of like me
I like myself the way I am.A lot like me
I am happy with how I look.Just like me
I wish I was better looking.
I worry that other kids don’t like me.
I feel tired all the time.
I often feel sad.
Maternal support (4-item index; range: 0–12; Cronbach’s α = .77)She makes me feel better when I am upset.Not like her
She listens to what I have to say.Sort of like her
She is too busy to talk to me.A lot like her
She wants to hear about my problems.Just like her
Maternal control (4-item index; range: 0–12; Cronbach’s α = .60)She has rules that I must follow.Not like her
She tells me what time I have to be home.Sort of like her
She asks me what I do with my friends.A lot like her
She knows where I am after school.Just like her
Parental disapproval of smokingIf you were smoking cigarettes and your mother knew about it, what would she say?She (he) would tell me to stop
She (He) would not tell me to stop
If you were smoking cigarettes and your father knew about it, what would he say?Don’t know
Don’t have a mother (father) or stepmother (stepfather)
  • Reprinted from Sargent et al.9.