TABLE 1.

Parent Reported Discipline Practices by Child Age (N = 2068)

Frequency of discipline strategiesChild Age
4–9 Months (N = 132; %)10–18 Months (N = 674; %)19–35 Months (N = 962; %)
Yelling
 Often3717
 Sometimes104050
 Rarely192924
 Never68249
Spanking
 Often012
 Sometimes21024
 Rarely41838
 Never947135
Toy removal
 Often23
 Sometimes42
 Rarely16
 Never18
Time out
 Often33
 Sometimes37
 Rarely15
 Never15
Explaining
 Often67
 Sometimes23
 Rarely7
 Never4