TABLE 4.

Probit Probability Estimates for School Behavior Problems at Follow-up That Required Parent-Teacher Meeting

Independent VariableWhite Non-HispanicAfrican AmericanHispanic
ME*P ValueCIME*P ValueCIME*P ValueCI
No. of times spanked in the week preceding baseline0.038<.001(0.021 to 0.060)−0.001.586(−0.038 to 0.022)0.000.979(−0.032 to 0.040)
Square of no. of times spanked−0.004.010(−0.006 to −0.001)0.000.871(−0.004 to 0.004)−0.000.874(−0.007 to 0.005)
Child is female−0.062<.001(−0.094 to −0.030)−0.097.001(−0.151 to −0.043)−0.088.003(−0.145 to −0.031)
Age of child−0.004.014(−0.009 to −0.001)0.000.853(−0.004 to 0.005)−0.001.864(−0.007 to 0.006)
Age of mother−0.001.683(−0.009 to 0.006)0.001.878(−0.011 to 0.013)0.001.822(−0.010 to 0.012)
Mother married−0.028.303(−0.089 to 0.033)−0.039.149(−0.091 to 0.013)−0.005.886(−0.068 to 0.059)
Family income ÷ 10 0000.000.879(−0.011 to 0.013)0.014.310(−0.013 to 0.041)−0.002.840(−0.023 to 0.019)
Mother completed >12 y of school−0.028§.077(−0.049 to 0.022)−0.053§.059(−0.105 to 0.001)0.004.888(−0.057 to 0.064)
Mother reads to child every day0.020.428(−0.022 to 0.043)0.013.616(−0.039 to 0.065)0.007.806(−0.049 to 0.062)
Difficult temperament index0.002.320(−0.002 to 0.004)−0.003.147(−0.008 to 0.001)0.002.484(−0.003 to 0.007)
Positive mother-child interactions−0.012.273(−0.048 to 0.018)−0.022.401(−0.074 to 0.030)−0.032.246(−0.086 to 0.025)
Predicted probability at means0.0560.0790.058
  • CI indicates confidence interval.

  • * Represents the estimated change in proportion resulting from a 1-unit increase in an explanatory variable. For dichotomous indicators, ME estimate is for a change from 0 to 1.

  • P < .01.

  • P < .05.

  • § P < .10.