TABLE 2.

Sample Characteristics at Ages <24 Months and Behavior Problems at Follow-up, by Race/Ethnicity

Full Sample (N = 1966; Mean [SD])White (N = 1023; Mean [SD])African American (N = 548; Mean [SD])Hispanic (N = 395; Mean [SD])
Child is female (1 = yes, 0 = no)0.497 (0.500)0.481 (0.500)0.512 (0.500)0.515 (0.500)
Child's age, mo*13.644 (4.475)13.548 (4.442)13.896 (4.526)13.544 (4.493)
Family income (in 1996 dollars)$39 494 ($22 547)$46 381 ($22 058)$26 350 ($17 234)$35 252§ ($22 045)
Child's parents are married (1 = yes, 0 = no)0.736 (0.443)0.878 (0.328)0.455 (0.499)0.750§ (0.434)Child's mother completed >12 y of school (1 = yes, 0 = no)0.429 (0.493)0.467 (0.499)0.382 (0.487)0.317 (0.466)
Mother's age, y28.055 (3.404)28.442 (3.311)27.549 (3.480)27.768 (3.420)
Mother rating of child temperament difficulty26.541 (6.798)25.548 (6.770)27.714 (6.702)27.448 (6.632)Spanked child in past week (1 = yes, 0 = no)0.387 (0.500)0.356 (0.497)0.493 (0.492)0.318§ (0.489)
No. of times spanked child in past week (excludes 0s)3.422 (3.539)3.247 (3.280)3.993 (4.169)2.724§ (2.512)
Mother reads to child every day (1 = yes, 0 = no)0.544 (0.498)0.682 (0.466)0.391 (0.489)0.401 (0.491)
Positive interactions observed during interview (1 = yes, 0 = no)0.603 (0.490)0.632 (0.483)0.552 (0.498)0.599 (0.491)
Child behavior problems required a parent–teacher meeting (1 = yes, 0 = no)0.086 (0.280)0.076 (0.264)0.110 (0.313)0.077 (0.267)
BPI >119 (1 = yes, 0 = no)0.125 (0.331)0.100 (0.300)0.165 (0.371)0.136 (0.343)
  • * At follow-up, children were aged 4–6 years.

  • Adjusted using the 1996 Consumer Price Index.

  • Statistically different from average for whites at P < .05.

  • § Statistically different from average for African Americans at P < .05.