Summary of Sample Selection Criteria

No. of Children ExcludedNo. of Children Remaining
All children aged 0 to 23 months at time of NLSY interview in 1986, 1988, 1990, 1992, 19944845
 Not followed up 4 years later in 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, or 199810103835
 Not yet attending school by time of follow-up11042731
 Missing a follow-up BPI rating for children aged 4 years and older4772254
 Missing maternal report of spanking frequency for the week before the baseline interview1012153
 Missing baseline rating of child temperament1002053
 Missing other information on household characteristics, family background, or personal characteristics871966