TABLE 3

ORs for the Associations Between Urinary BPA Levels and Cardiovascular and Diabetic Risk Factors

Risk FactorQ1 (<1.3 ng/mL)Q2 (1.3–2.6 ng/mL)P ValueQ3 (2.6–4.9 ng/mL)P ValueQ4 (>4.9 ng/mL)P Value
TC ≥200 mg/dL
 Sample sizea689774760779
 Unadjusted OR (95% CI)1 (referent)0.85 (0.51–1.42).50.75 (0.48–1.17).21.36 (0.88–2.13).2
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)b1 (referent)0.84 (0.51–1.38).50.75 (0.47–1.20).21.40 (0.86–2.27).2
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)c1 (referent)0.86 (0.51–1.45).60.77 (0.49–1.23).31.42 (0.88–2.28).1
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)d1 (referent)0.84 (0.51–1.39).50.74 (0.46–1.19).21.32 (0.81–2.17).3
HDL ≤35 mg/dL
 Sample sizea689774760779
 Unadjusted OR (95% CI)1 (referent)0.90 (0.52–1.59).71.36 (0.69–2.69).41.26 (0.71–2.26).4
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)b1 (referent)0.86 (0.45–1.66).61.30 (0.61–2.77).51.08 (0.51–2.30).8
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)c1 (referent)0.91 (0.47–1.74).81.37 (0.64–2.91).41.15 (0.55–2.42).7
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)d1 (referent)0.86 (0.45–1.67).71.31 (0.61–2.81).51.13 (0.52–2.44).8
Fasting LDL ≥130 mg/dL
 Sample sizea173184186239
 Unadjusted OR (95% CI)1 (referent)0.75 (0.21–2.60).61.59 (0.54–4.64).41.85 (0.56–6.06).3
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)b1 (referent)0.69 (0.19–2.56).61.38 (0.41–4.60).61.57 (0.44–5.68).5
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)c1 (referent)0.68 (0.18–2.60).61.37 (0.42–4.49).61.56 (0.43–5.62).5
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)d1 (referent)0.68 (0.18–2.57).61.37 (0.40–4.65).61.57 (0.43–5.75).5
Fasting TG ≥ 150 mg/dL
 Sample sizea173184186240
 Unadjusted OR (95% CI)1 (referent)1.21 (0.48–3.07).71.80 (0.66–4.86).21.91 (0.82–4.47).1
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)b1 (referent)1.11 (0.36–3.42).91.77 (0.67–4.71).22.28 (0.72–7.20).2
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)c1 (referent)1.40 (0.49–4.00).52.03 (0.79–5.20).12.56 (0.74–8.78).1
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)d1 (referent)1.11 (0.37–3.32).81.60 (0.61–4.18).32.08 (0.63–6.87).2
HOMA-IRd ≥4.39
 Sample sizea155158155196
 Unadjusted OR (95% CI)1 (referent)1.66 (0.76–3.64).21.17 (0.56–2.44).71.35 (0.66–2.76).4
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)b1 (referent)2.27 (0.79–6.48).11.27 (0.43–3.80).72.03 (0.75–5.50).2
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)c1 (referent)2.30 (0.93–5.72).071.43 (0.54–3.83).52.13 (0.84–5.39).1
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)d1 (referent)2.28 (0.77–6.72).11.27 (0.41–3.98).72.07 (0.72–5.94).2
Fasting glucose ≥100 mg/dL
 Sample sizea155161158201
 Unadjusted OR (95% CI)1 (referent)0.83 (0.38–1.80).61.11 (0.54–2.28).80.56 (0.27–1.15).1
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)b1 (referent)0.77 (0.33–1.79).51.23 (0.52–2.90).60.61 (0.21–1.73).3
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)c1 (referent)0.80 (0.34–1.88).61.24 (0.52–2.96).60.60 (0.21–1.71).3
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)d1 (referent)0.77 (0.33–1.78).51.32 (0.57–3.04).50.63 (0.22–1.82).4
  • a Unweighted n.

  • b Adjusted for BMI percentile, age, gender, race–ethnicity, urine creatinine, poverty-to-income ratio, and serum cotinine as a marker of smoking status.

  • c Adjusted for age, gender, race–ethnicity, urine creatinine, poverty to income ratio, and serum cotinine as a marker of smoking status.

  • d Adjusted for soda consumption, BMI percentile, age, gender, race–ethnicity, urine creatinine, poverty to income ratio, and serum cotinine as a marker of smoking status.