Mean* Intakes of Energy and Selected Nutrients and Food Groups Among 4- to 19-Year-Old Children by Fast-Food Intake Status, Adjusted for Potentially Confounding Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors (Between-Subject Comparisons for Data Obtained on Survey Day 1)

Energy, Nutrients, and Food GroupsHad no Fast Food (Minimally Adjusted)Had Fast Food (Minimally Adjusted)Difference (Minimally Adjusted)Difference (Fully Adjusted)§P Value (Fully Adjusted)§95% CI (Fully Adjusted)§
Energy (kcal)2049 ± 282236 ± 32+187+187<.0001109 to 265
Total fat (g)75 ± 1.384 ± 1.4+9+9<.00015.0 to 13.0
Saturated fat (g)26.8 ± 0.530.3 ± 0.6+3.5+3.7<.00012.1 to 5.3
Total carbohydrate (g)277 ± 4303 ± 6+25+24.000112.6 to 35.4
Added sugars (g)94 ± 2122 ± 4+28+26<.000118.2 to 34.6
Dietary fiber (g)14.3 ± 0.313.2 ± 0.3−1.1−1.1.004−1.8 to −0.36
Total fluid milk (g)302 ± 10236 ± 11−65−62.0005−95 to −30
Fruits and nonstarchy vegetables# (g)148 ± 5103 ± 6−45−45<.0001−58.6 to −31.4
Nondiet carbonated beverages** (g)243 ± 12471 ± 21+228+228<.0001184 to 272
Nonbeverage energy density (kcal/g)2.06 ± 0.022.36 ± 0.02+0.30+0.29<.00010.25 to 0.33
  • CI indicates confidence interval.

  • * Means ± standard error of the mean from the regression models.

  • Values from minimally adjusted regression models having fast-food status, age, and gender as independent variables

  • Column 3 minus column 2.

  • § Difference between fully adjusted means (not shown) of fast-food eaters and non-fast-food eaters from the regression model. Independent variables include fast-food intake status (had fast food or did not have fast food), age in years (a continuous variable), gender (male or female), race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic whites; non-Hispanic blacks; non-Hispanic other races such as Asians, Native Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Alaskan Natives; or Hispanics), annual household income as percentage of poverty (0%–130%, 131%–350%, or >350%), urbanization (central city, suburban, or rural), and geographic region (Northeast, Midwest, South, or West).

  • Includes all sugars used as ingredients in processed and prepared foods, sugars added to foods at the table, and sugars eaten separately. Does not include sugars present naturally in foods such as lactose in milk and fructose in fruits.

  • Fluids included whole, low-fat, skim, and acidophilus milk; buttermilk; reconstituted dry milk; evaporated milk; and sweetened condensed milk. Milk drinks are not included.

  • # Includes citrus, dried, and other fruits; mixtures having fruit as a main ingredient; dark-green and deep-yellow vegetables; tomatoes; lettuce; other vegetables; and mixtures having vegetables as a main ingredient. Not included are citrus and other fruit juices, potatoes of all types, corn, green peas, and lima beans.

  • ** Includes all carbonated soft drinks except unsweetened and sugar-free types.