TABLE 5.

Odds and 95% CIs of Being in 1 of 3 Ordinal BLL Groups Versus in Lowest BLL Group Among Children 1–5 Years Old (NHANES 1988–1994)

VariableCategory5 < 10 μg/dL10 < 20 μg/dL≥20 μg/dLP Value (Wald χ2)
Race/ethnicityNon-Hispanic black3.3 (2.1, 5.4)7.3 (3.4, 15.4)13.5 (4.7, 38.5)<.001
Mexican American2.4 (1.4, 4.2)2.5 (0.9, 6.7)*1.8 (0.3, 9.4)*
Non-Hispanic whiteReferenceReferenceReference
Age1–2 y1.9 (1.4, 2.6)2.6 (1.7, 4.2)2.1 (1.0, 4.6)<.001
3–5 yReferenceReferenceReference
Age of housingBefore 19464.4 (2.9, 6.8)5.1 (2.7, 9.8)15 (2.8, 80.8)<.001
1946–19732.2 (1.5, 6.8)0.9 (1.7, 3.9)*3.7 (0.8, 17.5)*
1974 to presentReferenceReferenceReference
PovertyAt or below PIR1.6 (1.0, 2.5)2.7 (1.2, 6.0)2.1 (0.7, 6.7)*<.04
Above PIRReferenceReferenceReference
Adult smoker in homeYes1.3 (0.9, 1.9)*1.6 (1.1, 2.4)2.8 (1.3, 6.3)<.01
NoReferenceReferenceReference
Education level of reference adultNon-high school graduate1.5 (1.0, 2,2)2.2 (1.3, 3.8)1.9 (0.8, 4.6)*<.03
High school gradReferenceReferenceReference
Medicaid coverageYes1.9 (1.2, 3.2)2.4 (1.2, 4.8)5.2 (1.4, 19.5)<.001
NoReferenceReferenceReference
Region of countryNortheast5.8 (2.0, 16.2)10.7 (2.6, 43.42)12.5 (1.7, 94.2)<.001
Midwest3.9 (1.6, 9.3)12.8 (4.6, 35.6)10.5 (1.8, 61.2)
South2.4 (1.1, 5.2)2.8 (1.0, 7.9)1.2 (0.1, 10.3)*
WestReferenceReferenceReference
  • Reference group = children with BLLs <5 μg/dL (0.24 μmol/L).

  • * Nonsignificant.