TABLE 1.

Variables Significantly Associated in Bivariate Analysis With Elevated BLL Groups Among Children 1–5 Years Old, NHANES III 1988–1994

Variable*N% Response (Weighted)n (+ Blood Lead)P Value
Race/ethnicity549689.14381<.001
Age57871004624<.001
Maternal age at birth§575199.44596<.001
Adult smoker in home578299.94620<.001
Education of reference person57871004545<.001
Poverty level5285944273<.001
Family income#5285944273<.001
Medicaid coverage416370.53435<.001
Private insurance489190.23954<.001
Regular health clinic57871004624.03
Regular physician526994.54209.04
Take vitamin supplement576699.84608<.001
History of anemia576499.74606.01
Reported hunger578099.94619<.001
Participation in WIC**577599.94615<.001
Prior lead test567697.64534<.001
Age of housing††491487.63912<0.001
Time at home address‡‡575999.64608<0.001
Region of country§§57871004624<0.001
  • * Where not specified, yes/no response.

  • Non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Mexican American. Excludes “other” category.

  • 1–2 years old; 3–5 years old.

  • § ≤21 years; >21 years old.

  • High school graduate; non-high school graduate.

  • Below or at PIR; above PIR.

  • # <$10 000/y; $10 000 to <$30 000/y; $30 000 to <$50 000/y; $50 000+/y.

  • ** Program on Women, Infants, and Children.

  • †† Before 1946; 1946–1973; 1974 to present.

  • ‡‡ ≤1 year; >1 year.

  • §§ Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.