TABLE 2.

Proven or Potential Interventions to Prevent Human Milk Transmission of HIV-1

Risk Factor for TransmissionAssociated Intervention
Longer exposure to human milk from an HIV-1-infected womanComplete avoidance of breastfeeding Early weaning
Greater maternal infectivity (eg, higher maternal viral load in peripheral blood and in human milk)Maternal antiretroviral therapy while breastfeeding
Factors facilitating viral transfer from mother to child (eg, mixed breastfeeding)Avoidance of mixed breastfeeding (encouragement of exclusive breastfeeding)
Infant susceptibility to infectionImprovement of infant defenses against infection (eg, with passive immunization or with antiretroviral prophylaxis to breastfeeding infants)