Table 3.

Bivariate Associations of Colonization With Penicillin-Susceptible S pneumoniae and PNSP Among 742 Children* From 16 Massachusetts Communities

VariableColonized With S pneumoniae (% [N])P ValueColonized With PNSP (% [N])P Value
Age (mo)<.001.01
 0 to <58 (9/109)2 (2/107)
 5 to <2429 (78/270)12 (30/262)
 24 to <3625 (26/104)6 (6/102)
 36+30 (77/259)7 (17/247)
Sex
  Male26 (106/401)NS8 (32/389)NS
  Female25 (84/340)7 (23/328)
Race
  White26 (144/548)NS8 (42/532)NS
  Nonwhite26 (41/159)7 (11/151)
Current RTI
  Yes40 (78/195)<.00119 (35/187)<.001
  No20 (109/534)4 (20/519)
Current otitis media
  Yes54 (39/72)<.00133 (22/67)<.001
  No23 (148/657)5 (33/639)
Current antibiotic use
  Yes20 (14/70)NS10 (7/68)NS
  No26 (175/665)8 (48/643)
Antibiotic use in past 2 mo
  Yes25 (74/294)NS12 (34/286)<.001
  No26 (116/448)5 (21/432)
Child care
  ≥4 h/wk35 (105/303)<.00112 (35/291)<.001
  <4 h/wk20 (77/392)4 (16/380)
Siblings <6 y old
  023 (83/367).048 (29/361)NS
  129 (77/266)8 (19/251)
  >135 (24/68)8 (5/65)
Share a room with child <6 y old
  Yes37 (52/140)<.018 (10/129)NS
  No24 (128/536)8 (40/523)
Breastfed (mo)
  >223 (62/274).088 (22/269)NS
  ≤229 (116/405)8 (30/386)
Smoking
  Yes25 (53/209)NS7 (13/201)NS
  No26 (128/491)8 (38/476)
Prematurity-gestational age (wk)
  <3638 (11/29)NS19 (5/27).03
  ≥3625 (176/700)7 (50/679)
  • NS indicates not significant.

  • * Ns for individual items vary because of age restrictions and missing data. Analysis of colonization with S pneumoniae based on 742 isolates. Analysis of colonization with PNSP based on 718 isolates for which resistance data were available.