TABLE 4.

Results of Logistic Regression Models* to Predict Caries Experience at 4 to 7 Years of Age for 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-Year and Combined 1- Through 5-Year Exposure Variables

Exposure VariablesOdds Ratio (95% CI)
Year 1 (n = 636)
 Age at dental examination (y)1.7 (1.1, 2.7)
 Regular beverages from powder, nonuser0.37 (0.17, 0.81)
 Riboflavin, inadequate intake4.6 (1.1, 19.1)
 Copper, inadequate intake1.6 (1.1, 2.5)
 Vitamin B12, low adequate intake0.50 (0.34, 0.73)§
 Vitamin C, low adequate intake0.65 (0.44, 0.95)
 Vitamin E, high adequate intake2.4 (1.3, 4.1)
Year 2 (n = 525)
 Age at dental examination (y)2.33 (1.4, 3.7)
 Regular soda pop, nonuser0.48 (0.32, 0.72)§
Year 3 (n = 421)
 Age at dental examination (y)2.61 (1.4, 4.6)
 Fluoride exposure (mg)0.54 (0.30, 0.96)
 Vitamin D, inadequate intake1.6 (1.01, 2.6)
 Regular soda pop, nonuser0.50 (0.31, 0.81)
 Vitamin E, low adequate intake2.0 (1.03, 3.74)
Year 4 (n = 410)
 Age at dental examination (y)2.34 (1.2, 4.3)
 Regular beverages from powder, high intake2.5 (1.3, 4.7)
Year 5 (n = 417)
 Age at dental examination (y)2.9 (1.5, 5.7)
 100% juice, low intake0.57 (0.34, 0.97)
 Regular soda pop, high intake2.0 (1.2, 3.3)
 Regular beverages from powder, high intake2.0 (1.0, 3.9)
 Sugar-free beverages from powder, nonuser0.14 (0.02, 0.87)
 Vitamin B12 inadequate intake3.7 (1.1, 11.9)
 Vitamin E, high adequate intake2.0 (1.1, 3.7)
Years 1–5 (n = 396)
 Age at dental examination (y)3.2 (1.6, 6.1)§
 Regular soda pop, high intake2.2 (1.4, 3.6)
 Regular beverages from powder, high intake2.0 (1.2, 3.4)
  • CI indicates confidence interval.

  • * Preliminary models include age at dental examination, sex, fluoride exposure, and dietary variables significant at P < .10 in univariate analysis. Dietary categories included nonuser, low intake, and high intake. The category stated in the model is compared with both of the other categories. Nutrient categories included inadequate, low adequate, and high adequate intakes. The category stated in the model is compared with both of the other categories.

  • P < .05.

  • P < .01.

  • § P < .001.

  • Sugar-containing powdered beverages reconstituted with water.