TABLE 3.

Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals for LBW for Foreign-Born Indian and Mexican Mothers and US-Born Non-Hispanic Black and White Mothers*—California Live Singleton Births, 1995–1997

CharacteristicUS-Born White (n = 488 314)Foreign-Born Indian (n = 12 542)Foreign-Born Mexican (n = 424 219)US-Born Black (n = 100 715)
Infant gender
 Male1.001.001.001.00
 Female1.16 (1.12–1,19)1.19 (1.04–1.36)1.03 (1.00–1.07)1.22 (1.17–1.27)
Maternal age
 ≤19y1.02 (0.96–1.07)3.38 (2.06–5.51)1.43 (1.37–1.50)0.80 (0.75–0.85)
 20–34y1.001.001.001.00
 ≥35y1.37 (1.32–1.42)1.28 (1.04–1.58)1.37 (1.31–1.44)1.56 (1.47–1.67)
Maternal education
 <High school1.23 (1.17–1.29)0.95 (0.71–1.28)0.97 (0.93–1.01)1.23 (1.16–1.30)
 High school1.001.001.001.00
 Some college0.92 (0.88–0.96)1.04 (0.84–1.30)1.06 (0.99–1.14)0.89 (0.84–0.94)
 College0.80 (0.83–0.92)1.01 (0.81–1.26)1.08 (0.97–1.20)0.84 (0.76–0.92)
 Unknown1.34 (1.15–1.57)0.84 (0.36–1.94)0.91 (0.78–1.05)1.12 (0.94–1.33)
Paternal education
 <High school1.17 (1.11–1.24)0.83 (0.61–1.14)1.05 (1.01–1.10)1.01 (0.94–1.08)
 High school1.001.001.001.00
 Some college0.92 (0.88–0.96)0.88 (0.69–1.12)0.93 (0.86–1.00)0.92 (0.87–0.98)
 College0.84 (0.80–0.88)0.75 (0.60–0.94)0.89 (0.81–0.99)0.84 (0.76–0.92)
 Unknown1.25 (1.17–1.32)0.83 (0.46–1.48)1.25 (1.18–1.33)1.14 (1.07–1.21)
Prenatal care initiation
 First trimester1.001.001.001.00
 Second trimester1.12 (1.07–1.17)0.86 (0.68–1.08)0.93 (0.90–0.97)1.11 (1.05–1.18)
 Third trimester/none/unkown1.79 (1.68–1.90)1.42 (1.02–1.98)1.16 (1.10–1.23)1.72 (1.60–1.85)
Payer for delivery
 MediCal (Medicare)1.31 (1.26–1.36)0.96 (0.79–1.17)1.12 (1.08–1.17)1.29 (1.23–1.36)
 Private insurance/HMO1.001.001.001.00
 Self-pay1.30 (1.19–1.42)1.33 (0.89–2.01)1.32 (1.22–1.44)1.99 (1.71–2.31)
 Other payer1.09 (1.01–1.18)1.13 (0.48–2.69)1.31 (1.06–1.62)0.99 (0.88–1.12)
 Unknown2.39 (1.90–3.00)0.39 (0.05–2.87)1.57 (1.25–1.97)2.51 (1.88–3.36)
Pregnancy complication
 Hypertension2.63 (2.28–3.03)2.77 (0.93–8.27)3.65 (2.96–4.49)1.86 (1.49–2.31)
 Diabetes0.85 (0.76–0.95)0.90 (0.64–1.28)0.89 (0.80–0.99)0.90 (0.76–1.08)
 Preeclampsia/eclampsia4.90 (4.66–5.16)7.55 (5.75–9.89)6.28 (5.91–6.67)3.80 (3.47–4.15)
 Placenta previa/abrupt9.66 (8.94–10.44)4.30 (2.62–7.06)9.63 (8.70–10.65)7.75 (6.66–9.02)
  • Data source: California Department of Health Services, Birth Cohort File, 1995–1997.

  • Includes births occurring in California with known birth weight at least 500 g.

  • * Logistic regression stratified by maternal race/ethnicity/nationality with 95% confidence intervals shown in parentheses.