TABLE 1.

Selected Characteristics and Pregnancy Complications of Foreign-Born Indian and Mexican Mothers and US-Born Non-Hispanic Black and White Mothers—California Births, 1995–1997

Characteristic (%)US-Born White (n = 506 365)Foreign-Born Indian (n = 12 899)Foreign-Born Mexican (n = 433 825)US-Born Black (n = 104 888)
Maternal age
 ≤19 y7.90.911.119.4
 ≥35 y18.710.61.010.8
Prenatal care initiation
 First trimester86.285.872.676.7
 Third trimester/none/unknown3.53.47.16.1
Maternal education
 ≤High school10.17.868.920.7
 ≥College graduate31.148.62.69.9
Paternal education
 ≤High school7.27.461.110.5
 ≥College graduate32.659.53.39.2
Payer for delivery
 MediCal (Medicaid)23.318.172.355.4
Pregnancy complications
 Hypertension0.40.20.20.6*
 Preeclampsia or eclampsia2.92.11.82.7
 Diabetes1.71.91.91.4
 Placenta previa or abruption0.80.80.50.8
  • Data source: California Department of Health Services, Birth Cohort File, 1995–1997.

  • Includes births occurring in California with known birth weight at least 500 g.

  • * Compared with US-born white mothers, χ2 test significant at 5% level (P < .05).

  • Compared with US-born white mothers, χ2 test significant at 1% level (P < .01).