Exposure Type and Exposure Risk Category for HIV

Exposure TypeExposure Risk Category
Cutaneous exposure
 Fluid on intact skinNo risk identified
 Bite without break in skin
 Skin with compromised integrity (eczema, chapped skin, dermatitis, abrasion, laceration, open wound)Low to intermediate
 Traumatic skin wound with bleeding in donor and recipient*High
Mucous membrane exposure
 KissingNo risk identified
 Oral sexLow
 Human milk: single ingestion
 Splash to eye or mouth
 Receptive vaginal sex without traumaIntermediate
 Receptive anal intercourseHigh
 Traumatic sex with blood (sexual assault)
Percutaneous exposure
 Superficial scratch with sharp object, including a needle found in the communityNo risk identified
 Puncture wound with solid needleLow
 Puncture wound with hollow needle without visible blood
 Body piercing
 Bite with break in skin
 Puncture wound with hollow needle with visible bloodIntermediate
 Puncture wound with large-bore hollow needle with visible blood on needle, or needle recently used in source patient artery or veinHigh
  • * For example, in a fight, a blow to the mouth might break a tooth that bleeds and lacerate the first that also bleeds. If there was mixing of blood, both persons may be at risk.

  • See text for considerations used in assigning the appropriate risk category for a percutaneous exposure.