Sexual Exposure to HIV: Factors Affecting Risk of Sexual Transmission of HIV.40

Biologic FactorEffect on Risk of HIV Transmission*Effect on Risk of HIV Acquisition
Late stage of HIV infection↑↑↑Not applicable
Primary HIV infection↑↑Not applicable
Antiretroviral therapy↓↓↓↓
Local infection at exposure site↑↑↑↑
Presence of cervical ectopy↑↑↑↑
Presence of foreskin↑↑↑↑
Intrauterine device contraception↑↑
Genital tract trauma↑↑↑↑
  • Arrows represent risk relative to baseline values in Table 3 (the more arrows pointing upward, the higher the risk; the more arrows pointing downward, the lower the risk).

  • * Risk of transmission: the likelihood that HIV will be passed (transmitted) from donor to recipient.

  • Risk of acquisition: the likelihood that recipient, once exposed, will become infected with HIV.