TABLE 1.

Factors Associated With Increased Incidence of Infants Who Are Born SGA

Fetal factors
 Karyotypic abnormalities
  Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome)
  Trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome)
  Monosomy X (Turner syndrome)
  Trisomy 13 (gonadal dysgenesis)
 Other chromosomal abnormalities
  Autosomal deletions
  Ring chromosomes
 Genetic diseases
  Achondroplasia
  Bloom syndrome
 Congenital anomalies
  Potter syndrome
  Cardiac abnormalities
Maternal factors
 Medical conditions
  Hypertension
  Renal disease
  Diabetes (advanced stages) mellitus
  Collagen vascular diseases (eg, systemic lupus erythematosus)
  Maternal hypoxemia (cyanotic heart disease, chronic anemia, chronic pulmonary disease)
 Infection
  Toxoplasmosis
  Rubella
  Cytomegalovirus
  Herpesvirus
  Malaria
  Trypanosomiasis
  Human immunodeficiency virus
 Nutritional status
  Low prepregnancy weight
  Low pregnancy weight with poor weight gain during pregnancy
 Substance use/abuse
  Cigarette smoking
  Alcohol
  Illicit drugs
  Therapeutic drugs (eg, warfarin, anticonvulsants, antineoplastic agents, folic acid antagonists)
Uterine/placental factors
 Gross structural placental factors
  Single umbilical artery
  Velamentous umbilical cord insertion
  Bilobate placenta
  Placental hemangiomas
  Infarcts, focal lesions
 Insufficient uteroplacental perfusion
  Suboptimal implantation site
 Placenta previa
 Low-lying placenta
 Placental abruption
Demographic factors
 Maternal age
  Very young age
  Older age
 Maternal height
 Maternal weight
 Maternal and paternal race
 Parity
  Nulliparity
  Grand multiparity
 Maternal history
  Previous delivery of SGA infants
Other
 Multiple gestation
  Particularly severe in syndromes associated with shared fetal circulation
  • Adapted from Bernstein and Divon,18 Pollack and Divon,19 Wollmann,20 and Keller et al.21