TABLE 2.

Description and Examples of Selected Variables From Project Abstracts

VariableDefinitionExample(s)
Activity code3-digit code that specifies category of fundingP01-Research program projects;
M01-General Clinical Research Centers Program
ICD codeInstitute, Center, or Division administering the awardRR-National Center for Research Resources.
HD-National Institute for Child Health and Human Development
Award amountDollars awarded to project for the specified fiscal year$139 000; $2.5 million
Human milk science for improving composition of artificial milkAsks whether project involved the application of human milk science to improve content of infant formulaYes: Study of antiviral properties of human milk to develop a product for prevention and/or treatment of rotaviral diarrhea; implications for product to be added to infant formula27
Human milk science for technology developmentAsks whether project involved the application of human milk science to develop new technologies or pharmaceutical productsYes; Define specific inhibitor of HIV transmission in human milk, as basis for developing therapeutic/prophylactic agent28
Preterm/LBW infantAsks whether project involved preterm/LBW infants (vulnerable population)Yes; Compare the effects of sequential versus simultaneous double breast pumping on milk volume in mothers of preterm infants29
ImpactImpact, if any, that project will have on achievement of Healthy People 2000 goals for breastfeeding:
Direct impact studies involve clinical interventions and identify either initiation and/or duration of breastfeeding as outcome measure(s)The effect of comprehensive and structured breastfeeding services on breastfeeding duration rates for mothers of LBW infants30
Indirect impact studies are those that can affect breastfeeding initiation and/or duration through education, policy, or descriptive findings that can inform future intervention studiesEvaluation and expanding physicians’ knowledge about breastfeeding counseling31
No impact studies have no effect on increasing rates of breastfeeding initiation or durationUsing a suckling rat model to understand the regulation of breast milk carnitine transport into the body32; Delineating the role of glycoprotein components of the human milk fat globule membrane in inhibiting viral receptor binding and infectivity33
Studies whose impact cannot be determined are those with a title/subtitle that appears to indicate a breastfeeding project but whose abstract contains limited information to allow for determination of the level of impactTitle: “General Clinical Research Center”
Subtitle: “Maternal calorie restriction on breast milk production”
Abstract: “Breast milk production in well-nourished, lactating women.”34