TABLE 2.

Patient-Level Characteristics Associated With Hospital-Reported ICD-9 Coded Medical Errors in Children

1988199119941997
Age
 <1 y1.07 (0.96, 1.19)*1.55 (1.30, 1.83)1.87 (1.61, 2.17)1.29 (1.05, 1.57)
 1 to 5 y2.30 (2.12, 2.49)3.23 (2.91, 3.57)3.37 (3.02, 3.76)3.39 (2.96, 3.87)
 6–12 y2.84 (2.63, 3.07)4.32 (3.95, 4.73)4.69 (4.40, 5.00)5.05 (4.61, 5.52)
 13–18 y1.77 (1.69, 1.86)2.68 (2.51, 2.85)2.74 (2.54, 2.95)2.87 (2.60, 3.16)
Gender
 Male2.06 (1.93, 2.19)3.02 (2.75, 3.30)3.48 (3.20, 3.78)3.05 (2.69, 3.44)
 Female1.56 (1.45, 1.68)2.33 (2.10, 2.58)2.48 (2.24, 2.73)2.24 (1.95, 2.57)
Race
 White1.95 (1.76, 2.15)3.09 (2.77, 3.43)3.53 (3.24, 3.85)2.82 (2.46, 3.21)
 Black2.00 (1.76, 2.27)2.45 (2.08, 2.87)2.52 (2.29, 2.77)2.40 (2.03, 2.80)
 Other2.42 (2.01, 2.89)2.70 (2.22, 3.25)2.93 (2.33, 3.64)1.76 (1.46, 2.11)
Median household income (8-digit zip code)
 $0–$15 0001.37 (1.10, 1.67)*2.04 (1.73, 2.40)2.29 (2.02, 2.58)2.12 (1.72, 2.59)
 $15 001–$20 0001.59 (1.43, 1.77)1.96 (1.76, 2.18)2.15 (1.90, 2.44)1.99 (1.65, 2.37)
 $20 001–$25 0001.66 (1.54, 1.79)2.48 (2.22, 2.77)2.59 (2.32, 2.88)2.43 (2.07, 2.84)
 $25 001–$30 0001.81 (1.67, 1.97)2.62 (2.37, 2.90)3.06 (2.75, 3.38)2.67 (2.30, 3.07)
 $30 001–$35 0002.08 (1.91, 2.25)2.97 (2.70, 3.25)3.43 (2.99, 3.91)2.82 (2.41, 3.28)
 $35 001–$40 0002.07 (1.84, 2.31)3.18 (2.83, 3.56)3.54 (3.10, 4.04)2.88 (2.42, 3.40)
 $40 001–$45 0002.48 (2.23, 2.76)3.39 (3.01, 3.81)3.93 (3.53, 4.36)2.75 (2.28, 3.29)
 >$45 0002.19 (1.92, 2.49)3.42 (2.89, 4.03)3.95 (3.51, 4.42)2.76 (2.24, 3.35)
Payor
 Commercial1.79 (1.66, 1.92)2.79 (2.50, 3.10)3.41 (3.13, 3.71)2.96 (2.62, 3.34)
 Health maintenance organization2.68 (2.39, 3.00)3.39 (2.99, 3.82)3.62 (3.29, 3.97)2.82 (2.33, 3.38)
 Public (Medicare and Medicaid)1.82 (1.68, 1.98)2.48 (2.23, 2.74)2.85 (2.48, 3.25)2.44 (2.06, 2.87)
Special Medical Need/Technology
 Has a special medical need (V-code)8.18 (7.33, 9.09)*11.67 (10.44, 13.02)12.40 (11.63, 13.21)11.72 (10.49, 13.05)
 No special medical needs (V-Code absent)1.7 (1.60, 1.80)2.46 (2.24, 2.69)2.66 (2.44, 2.88)2.31 (2.05, 2.59)
Admission source
 Emergency department1.60 (1.52, 1.69)2.27 (2.14, 2.41)2.43 (2.25, 2.62)2.65 (2.37, 2.95)
 Another hospital2.80 (2.23, 3.48)3.77 (3.36, 4.22)4.55 (4.05, 5.09)4.90 (4.25, 5.61)
 Other facility (long-term care)2.31 (1.91, 2.77)6.01 (3.86, 8.88)8.83 (6.76, 11.29)7.97 (4.02, 13.85)
 Routine admission2.11 (1.93, 2.30)2.98 (2.73, 3.25)3.24 (2.90, 3.60)2.42 (2.06, 2.82)
Admission type
 Emergent1.87 (1.74, 2.01)2.62 (2.46, 2.80)2.75 (2.49, 3.03)2.86 (2.50, 3.26)
 Urgent1.96 (1.81, 2.13)2.38 (2.14, 2.64)3.00 (2.63, 3.40)2.82 (2.44, 3.25)
 Elective2.50 (2.27, 2.74)4.01 (3.61, 4.43)4.28 (3.73, 4.88)4.43 (3.69, 5.27)
Disposition
 Routine care1.72 (1.62, 1.83)*2.52 (2.29, 2.76)2.73 (2.49, 2.99)2.38 (2.09, 2.70)
 Short-term hospital3.06 (2.59, 3.59)3.43 (2.99, 3.92)4.84 (4.26, 5.47)4.14 (3.60, 4.73)
 Skilled nursing facility4.83 (4.02, 5.75)6.99 (6.30, 7.74)10.54 (8.76, 12.54)9.44 (7.34, 11.91)
 Intermediate care3.36 (2.55, 4.34)7.86 (4.34, 12.88)4.38 (3.13, 5.93)2.93 (1.57, 4.96)
 Another facility2.51 (1.95, 3.17)3.49 (3.09, 3.92)4.84 (3.90, 5.92)4.61 (3.39, 6.09)
 Home health care5.39 (4.72, 6.13)8.39 (6.72, 10.31)7.15 (5.48, 9.14)7.87 (6.45, 9.49)
 Discharged against medical advice0.38 (0.22, 0.61)0.77 (0.57, 1.01)1.47 (0.96, 2.15)1.17 (0.80, 1.66)
  • * Data are represented as point estimates (95% confidence intervals).