TABLE 4.

Neurocognitive Findings in 44 Children With Significant Symptoms of ADHD, 27 Children With Mild Symptoms of ADHD, and 39 Control Children

Significant ADHD Symptoms (n = 44)Mild ADHD Symptoms (n = 27)Control (n = 39)
Behavioral measures
 Conners Parent Rating Scale
  Impulsive symptoms4.3 ± 2.9§2.5 ± 2.10.2 ± 0.6
  Inattentive symptoms3.7 ± 2.7§0.5 ± 0.60.0 ± 0.0
  Oppositional68.9 ± 13.0§58.5 ± 8.749.2 ± 8.5
  Cognitive problems/inattention73.7 ± 8.3§59.1 ± 6.848.4 ± 6.1
  Hyperactivity77.3 ± 11.1§70.5 ± 7.451.6 ± 6.8
  Anxious/shy59.7 ± 12.957.7 ± 10.149.7 ± 9.1
  Perfectionism56.5 ± 12.952.6 ± 13.347.0 ± 6.1
  Social problems64.5 ± 18.2§51.9 ± 9.248.6 ± 5.2
  Psychosomatic62.6 ± 15.855.5 ± 10.7*49.3 ± 7.8
  ADHD index77.6 ± 4.5§65.3 ± 2.649.4 ± 6.0
  Global index restless-impulsive77.6 ± 9.8§68.1 ± 6.950.6 ± 7.0
  Global index emotional lability64.1 ± 11.8§54.1 ± 10.448.5 ± 7.4
  Global index total75.3 ± 9.6§64.9 ± 6.649.9 ± 6.6
  DSM-IV inattentive74.3 ± 7.0§59.4 ± 5.147.7 ± 5.7
  DSM-IV hyperactive-impulsive78.1 ± 10.7§71.6 ± 7.251.5 ± 6.6
  DSM-IV total77.8 ± 7.5§66.0 ± 4.849.3 ± 6.1
 CBCL
  Withdrawn60.6 ± 9.057.4 ± 7.4*52.9 ± 5.2
  Somatic complaints61.8 ± 9.860.0 ± 6.053.7 ± 5.1
  Anxious/depressed61.4 ± 9.458.9 ± 8.8*54.1 ± 5.4
  Social problems65.1 ± 8.9§59.0 ± 7.553.2 ± 4.8
  Thought65.7 ± 9.9§60.2 ± 7.6*55.4 ± 6.3
  Attention73.4 ± 7.7§65.6 ± 6.554.1 ± 6.6
  Delinquency64.0 ± 9.158.9 ± 8.0*54.2 ± 5.5
  Aggression69.1 ± 11.462.6 ± 10.654.1 ± 5.5
  Internalizing62.2 ± 10.458.0 ± 11.349.1 ± 9.2
  Externalizing67.4 ± 9.2§60.9 ± 9.950.1 ± 9.7
  Total69.8 ± 7.9§62.3 ± 9.950.8 ± 10.0
Neurocognitive measures
 DAS
  Verbal93.4 ± 14.099.3 ± 12.598.5 ± 13.0
  Nonverbal93.8 ± 16.1*100.7 ± 14.0101.9 ± 13.8
  Overall93.1 ± 14.7*100.0 ± 11.1100.4 ± 12.7
 NEPSY
  Attention/executive94.8 ± 20.7102.7 ± 16.6108.5 ± 16.8
  Language90.8 ± 17.998.9 ± 14.6103.0 ± 16.0
  Visuospatial92.9 ± 13.4100.3 ± 14.2107.2 ± 14.8
  Memory101.4 ± 18.3*107.2 ± 14.6109.5 ± 15.0
  • * P ≤ .05.

  • P ≤ .001 versus controls.

  • P < .05 significant versus mild.

  • § P < .01 significant versus mild.