TABLE 2.

Summary of 5 Major Providers of CAM

No. of ProvidersNo. of Programs or SchoolsLength of TrainingContent of TrainingPediatric-Specific Training
ChiropracticApprox 55 000–70 000a16 accredited in the US by the Council on Chiropractic Education Commission on Accreditationb4 years chiropractic college (at least 4200 hours)bYears 1–2: biological and basic sciences, clinical disciplines. Years 3–4: supervised clinical training, often in college clinics120 hours leading to certification by the International Chiropractic Pediatric Associationc
Acupuncture10 000 licensede34 accredited by the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental MedicinefMinimum 1725 hours, 1000 of which must be didactic, and 500 clinical, for NCCAOM certificationgAcupuncture, herbal therapiesNo
Massage TherapyApprox 160 000–220 000,h approximately 40 000 Nationally Certified in Therapeutic Massage and Bodywork (NCBTMB)i55 accredited in the US by the Commission on Massage Therapy AccreditationjUsually minimum of 500 hourskMassage therapy theory and technique, anatomy, physiology, business ethics, first aid, and CPRNo
HomeopathyUnknownNo current national standard for homeopathic education. 19 institutions are currently accredited or undergoing review for accreditation by the Council for Homeopathic EducationmVaries, but a minimum of 500 hours (or a combination of shorter training, apprenticeship, and clinical experience) is required for CHC certification.nVaries, but usually includes didactic and clinical components of classical homeopathy and basic sciencesNo
NaturopathyApprox 1500o4 (3 US, 1 Canada) accredited by the Council on Naturopathic Medical Education. Another US program is a candidate for accreditationp3 years of college + 4 years of naturopathic studyqClinical nutrition, acupuncture, homeopathic medicine, botanical medicine, psychology, and counselingNo
Educational AttainmentStandardized Exams for Certification or LicensureCertifying BodyProfessional AssociationsState Licensure or RegulationPrescriptive Authority
Doctor of Chiropractic (DC)NBCE Certificate of Attainment awarded after passing exam Parts I, II. Exams consist of NBCE Parts I, II, III, Physiotherapy, Special Purposes Exam for Chiropractic (SPEC), Part IV Practical ExaminationdNational Board of Chiropractic ExaminersAmerican Chiropractic Association, International Chiropractic Association, International Chiropractic Pediatric Association50 states, see Federation of Chiropractic Licensing BoardsaNo
Varies, master’s degrees in acupuncture and doctoral degrees in oriental medicine (OMD)NCCAOM Certification in Acupuncture is basis for licensure. In some states, the NCCAOM certification in Chinese Herbology, as well as other qualifications, is also required. Diplomates use the designation DiplAc (NCCAOM)gNational Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental MedicineAmerican Association of Oriental Medicine, American Academy of Medical Acupuncture39 states and District of ColumbiagNo
No terminal educational degree, such as a doctorateNational certification exam qualifies diplomates to use the designation, NCTMB. In most of the 29 states, this exam is a basis for licensure. In the remaining states, a state exam is required.lNational Certification Board for Therapeutic Massage and BodyworkAmerican Massage Therapy Association30 states and District of ColumbialNo
No terminal educational degree, such as a doctorateA variety of exams and certifications by professional associations exist, including the designation, Certified Classical Homeopath (CHC), granted by the Council for Homeopathic Certification. These are not, however, a basis for state licensurenCouncil for Homeopathic Certification, National Board of Homeopathic Examiners, American Board of HomeotherapeuticsNorth American Society of Homeopaths, Homeopathic Academy of Naturopathic Physicians3 (homeopathic license contingent on holding current medical license in that state)nNo
Doctor of Naturopathy (ND)Naturopathic Physicians Licensing ExamNorth American Board of Naturopathic ExaminersAmerican Association of Naturopathic Physicians11 states and Puerto RicoqNo