TABLE 1.

Characteristics of the Study Sample

Study Sample Weighted % (n = 2828)*
Maternal age (y)
 15–173.5
 18–196.6
 20–3475.2
 ≥3514.8
Maternal race/ethnicity
 African American5.9
 Asian/Pacific Islander10.0
 European American/Mid-Eastern37.1
 Latina45.3
 Native American/Other1.7
Maternal education
 <High school23.8
 ≥High school76.2
Income (% FPL)
 ≤10034.7
 101–20023.7
 201–30011.1
 301–4008.1
 >40022.4
Delivery insurance
 Any private57.8
 Medicaid38.4
 Other2.0
 Uninsured1.8
Mother unmarried/not living as married19.0
Non-English language spoken at home39.6
Parity
 Primiparous39.5
 Multiparous60.5
Untimely prenatal care16.9
  • Source: MIHA, 1999.

    Excluded from study sample: subjects with infants with non-singleton births, gestations <37 weeks, birth weight <2500 g, abnormal conditions coded on birth certificates, death before discharge, or nonhospital birth; participants whose infants were no longer living with them; and participants with inconsistent responses to relevant survey questions.

  • * Unweighted sample size.

  • Prenatal care initiated after the first trimester or not at all.

    Some percentages do not add to 100% because of rounding.