TABLE 1.

Infant Characteristics, Exposures, and Complications

All NICUsNICUsP Value*
ABCDEF
Case mix, for all NICUs combined and by NICU
 Sample size564100989710010096
 Gestational age (wk)27.127.027.227.227.127.127.1.94
 Birth weight (g)1008972104610099639861077.03
 Small for GA (< 5th percentile, %)3.46.51.02.27.03.10.0.03
 SNAP (day 1)11.212.49.710.610.611.312.6.007
 SNAP (day 3)6.47.34.95.76.56.57.4.001
 Low Apgar score (< 7 at 5 min, %)27.543.321.023.924.226.826.4.01
 Male (%)54.447.862.155.148.052.661.5.18
 Race (%)<.0001
  White64.567.445.374.266.059.875.8
  Black13.716.316.89.016.019.63.3
  Hispanic11.714.14.25.613.019.613.2
  Asian2.31.12.16.70.01.03.3
  Other2.31.12.14.54.00.02.2
  Unknown5.50.029.50.01.00.02.2
 Multiple gestations (2–4, %)28.925.035.823.639.020.628.6.03
 Prenatal care (%)97.597.897.996.698.096.997.8.98
 Prenatal steroids (%)71.359.874.775.380.059.878.0.002
Medical practices and complications, for all NICUs combined and by NICU
 Respiratory support (d)
  Ventilator11.89.313.211.413.112.011.3.14
  CPAP6.98.17.78.84.17.94.9<.0001
  NC-RA9.811.37.67.510.78.912.8.001
 Postnatal steroid exposure (%)<.0001
  0 d78.675.066.389.956.092.893.4
  1–7 d5.59.88.44.55.02.13.3
  8–14 d7.112.013.71.19.04.12.2
  ≥15 d8.93.311.64.530.01.01.1
 Infection (%)25.416.322.120.227.051.613.2<.0001
 NEC (%)3.72.23.212.42.00.03.3.0002
 Patent ductus arteriosus (%)27.512.041.032.641.015.522.0<.0001
  • CPAP indicates continuous positive airway pressure; NC-RA, nasal cannula oxygen or room air.

  • * P value is a result of an analysis of variance or a χ2 test for comparisons among NICUs.

  • Mean or percentage.