TABLE 7.

Cry Variables in Heavy, Some, and No Cocaine Exposure Groups

MeasureCocaine Exposure
HeavySomeNoneP
NMean ± SENMean ± SENMean ± SEUnadjustedAdjusted
Threshold891.94 ± 0.021661.97 ± 0.025061.95 ± 0.01.221.131
Latency (sec)892.48 ± 0.391662.93 ± 0.295082.76 ± 0.19.837.084
Utterances (n)8910.58 ± 0.7616612.30 ± 0.5750811.21 ± 0.36.285.511
Short utterances (n)8915.85 ± 1.1616616.18 ± 0.8450815.92 ± 0.53.676.361
Duration first utterance (sec)892.31 ± 0.201662.31 ± 0.155082.25 ± 0.10.833.350
Duration second utterance (sec)*861.56 ± 0.101611.42 ± 0.084881.47 ± 0.05.426.046
Inspiratory period (sec)862.79 ± 0.361612.87 ± 0.284882.73 ± 0.18.936.089
Dysphonation (%)8914.60 ± 1.7416610.46 ± 1.3250811.86 ± 0.85.050.105
Mode changes (n)892.49 ± 0.281662.05 ± 0.215082.46 ± 0.13.086.938
Energy (dB)893733.97 ± 274.431663745.75 ± 206.005083673.04 ± 131.04.679.162
Fundamental frequency (Hz)89461.74 ± 10.50166473.04 ± 7.89506471.88 ± 5.03.506.278
Hyperphonation (%)891.42 ± 0.981661.72 ± 0.745082.27 ± 0.47.719.172
First formant (Hz)891682.16 ± 41.051661640.75 ± 30.845061632.06 ± 19.69.326.657
Second formant (Hz)893960.62 ± 42.101663916.03 ± 31.635063938.95 ± 20.19.217.465
  • SE indicates standard error.

  • * Significant cocaine by birth weight interaction (reported in text).