TABLE 6.

Cry Variables in Cocaine- and Opiate-Exposed and -Nonexposed Infants

MeasurePrenatal Cocaine-ExposedPrenatal Opiate-Exposed
YesNoPYesNoP
NMean ± SENMean ± SEUnadjustedAdjustedNMean ± SENMean ± SEUnadjustedAdjusted
Threshold (n)3521.97 ± 0.025441.96 ± 0.01.065.236631.97 ± 0.028331.96 ± 0.01.869.748
Latency (sec)3522.50 ± 0.275472.47 ± 0.25.962.546642.28 ± 0.418352.70 ± 0.14.495.317
Utterances (n)35211.77 ± 0.5354711.11 ± 0.49.170.5986411.31 ± 0.8183511.57 ± 0.27.389.761
Short utterances (n)35215.07 ± 0.7754715.06 ± 0.72.435.4836413.89 ± 1.1883516.24 ± 0.39.027.050
Duration first utterance (sec)3522.23 ± 0.145472.16 ± 0.13.512.364642.11 ± 0.218352.29 ± 0.07.306.409
Duration second utterance (sec)3441.42 ± 0.075251.46 ± 0.07.826.364621.43 ± 0.118071.45 ± 0.04.943.865
Inspiratory period (sec)3442.58 ± 0.255252.50 ± 0.24.753.111622.24 ± 0.398072.79 ± 0.13.363.167
Dysphonation (%)35212.82 ± 1.2454713.03 ± 1.14.329.4806414.30 ± 1.8983511.55 ± 0.62.066.156
Mode changes (n)3522.45 ± 0.185472.71 ± 0.18.131.437642.84 ± 0.308352.32 ± 0.10.102.096
Energy (dB)*3524225.74 ± 235.325473465.63 ± 212.98.016.919643940.16 ± 296.428353751.21 ± 97.85.973.537
Fundamental frequency (Hz)*351479.53 ± 8.86545453.31 ± 7.90.037.59463463.78 ± 11.08833470.05 ± 3.64.440.582
Hyperphonation (%)3522.90 ± 0.715473.46 ± 0.66.329.140644.29 ± 1.088352.07 ± 0.36.066.046
First formant (Hz)3511640.69 ± 29.475451615.67 ± 27.26.174.539631614.36 ± 44.918331642.00 ± 14.79.812.550
Second formant (Hz)3513950.86 ± 29.745453959.86 ± 27.51.046.690633973.51 ± 45.328333937.21 ± 14.93.919.436
  • SE indicates standard error.

  • * Significant cocaine by opiate interaction for analyses with and without covariates (reported in text).