TABLE 4.

NNNS Scales in Cocaine- and Opiate-Exposed and -Nonexposed Infants

MeasurePrenatal Cocaine-ExposedPrenatal Opiate-Exposed
YesNoPYesNoP
NMean ± SENMean ± SEUnadjustedAdjustedNMean ± SENMean ± SEUnadjustedAdjusted
Attention4235.42 ± 0.106865.34 ± 0.09.748.313865.42 ± 0.1510235.33 ± 0.05.035.536
Arousal4574.37 ± 0.057414.44 ± 0.05.341.038914.42 ± 0.0811074.40 ± 0.02.747.789
Regulation*4504.91 ± 0.067324.93 ± 0.06.480.050914.86 ± 0.1010914.98 ± 0.03.076.224
Handling4300.55 ± 0.027130.56 ± 0.02.407.124870.56 ± 0.0310560.55 ± 0.01.304.930
Quality of movement4554.43 ± 0.067404.49 ± 0.05.044.208914.49 ± 0.0811044.43 ± 0.03.917.467
Excitability*4604.12 ± 0.177514.03 ± 0.15.369.032914.16 ± 0.2511203.99 ± 0.08.394.506
Lethargy4603.37 ± 0.167513.31 ± 0.14.069.167913.28 ± 0.2411203.41 ± 0.07.064.589
Nonoptimal reflexes4604.48 ± 0.167514.37 ± 0.14.836.688914.54 ± 0.2411204.31 ± 0.08.098.352
Asymmetrical reflexes4601.00 ± 0.087510.90 ± 0.07.735.223910.93 ± 0.1211200.97 ± 0.04.905.730
Hypertonicity4600.53 ± 0.067460.63 ± 0.06.060.410910.55 ± 0.0311150.56 ± 0.10.570.862
Hypotonicity4600.18 ± 0.047460.20 ± 0.04.542.993910.20 ± 0.0611150.19 ± 0.02.800.852
Stress/abstinence4600.18 ± 0.017510.18 ± 0.01.501.520910.19 ± 0.0111200.17 ± 0.01.001.195
  • SE indicates standard error.

  • * Significant cocaine by birth weight interaction (reported in text).