TABLE 4.

Estimates of Program Effects on Mother-Child Interaction, Home Environment, and Child Outcomes

Treatment Group EstimatesTreatment Comparisons and 95% Confidence Intervals
SampleControlParaprofessionalNurseParaprofessional Versus ControlNurse Versus Control
Mother-infant interaction and home scoreLS MeanLS MeanLS MeanMean Difference (95% CI)Mean Difference (95% CI)
 Mother-infant responsive interactionWhole98.99100.15100.311.16 (−0.11–2.42)*1.32 (0.03–2.60)
Low resource97.5499.4599.501.91 (−0.03–3.85)1.97 (−0.09–4.02)*
 Home environmentWhole37.1037.4037.790.30 (−0.49–1.10)0.69 (−0.12–1.50)*
Low resource35.9336.9237.121.00 (−0.23–2.23)1.20 (−0.11–2.50)*
Infant emotional vitality and vulnerability, language, and mental delay%%%OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Vulnerable: fear stimuli (6 mo)Whole2518160.67 (0.40–1.13)0.57 (0.32–1.00)
Low resource2117120.77 (0.34–1.72)0.51 (0.20–1.31)
Low vitality: joy stimuli (6 mo)Whole3431260.88 (0.57–1.38)0.68 (0.42–1.09)
Low resource4030240.64 (0.33–1.24)0.46 (0.22–0.98)
Low vitality: anger stimuli (6 mo)Whole2826190.89 (0.55–1.43)0.62 (0.37–1.05)*
Low resource3222130.63 (0.31–1.29)0.33 (0.14–0.79)
Language delay (21 mo)Whole121160.90 (0.48–1.66)0.48 (0.23–1.01)
Low resource181370.66 (0.28–1.58)0.32 (0.11–0.97)
Mental development delay (24 mo)Whole1314111.07 (0.59–1.94)0.83 (0.44–1.57)
Low resource1919100.97 (0.44–2.13)0.48 (0.18–1.24)
Child cognitive and behavioral developmentLS MeanLS MeanLS MeanMean Difference (95% CI)Mean Difference (95% CI)
Language development (21 mo)Whole99.4999.89101.220.40 (−1.94–2.74)1.73 (−0.64–4.11)
Low resource96.8597.83101.520.98 (−2.65–4.62)4.67 (0.85–8.49)
MDI (24 mo)Whole89.3889.4590.130.07 (−2.39–2.53)0.75 (−1.77–3.28)
Low resource86.2088.5490.182.33 (−1.46–6.12)3.98 (−0.07–8.02)
Irritable temperament (6 mo)Whole2.842.832.80−0.01 (−0.17–0.15)−0.04 (−0.21–0.12)
Low resource2.922.952.880.02 (−0.22–0.27)−0.04 (−0.30–0.22)
Behavior problems score (24 mo)Whole45.2645.4943.710.23 (−3.58–4.03)−1.56 (−5.45–2.33)
Low resource49.2548.7948.13−0.46 (−6.37–5.45)−1.12 (−7.39–5.14)
  • LS indicates least squares; CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio.

  • * P < .10.

  • P ≤ .05.