TABLE 3.

Effect of Parental Disapproval on the Odds of Becoming an Established Smoker by Survey 3 Among 372 Never-Smokers at Baseline

Predictor VariableEstablished Smoker*
N (Percent Smokers)Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
Parent disapproves of smoking (at baseline)
 Neither disapproves41 (26.8)Reference
 One disapproves47 (21.3)0.4 (0.1, 1.2)
 Both disapprove284 (19.4)0.4 (0.1, 1.0)
Change in parental disapproval: (Surveys 1 → 2)
 No change271 (18.1)Reference
 Becomes more lenient56 (33.9)2.3 (1.0, 5.4)
 Becomes more strict45 (17.8)0.4 (0.1, 1.3)
Change in parental disapproval (Surveys 2 → 3)
 No change269 (17.5)Reference
 Becomes more lenient66 (28.8)2.2 (1.1, 4.6)
 Becomes more strict37 (27.0)1.0 (0.4, 2.9)
Control variables
Parent smoking (at baseline)
 Neither204 (18.6)Reference
 One99 (18.2)0.8 (0.4, 1.7)
 Both69 (29.0)1.8 (0.9, 3.7)
Sibling smoking (at baseline)
 No321 (19.9)Reference
 Yes51 (23.5)1.0 (0.4, 2.1)
Friend smoking (at baseline)
 No258 (17.4)Reference
 Yes113 (27.2)1.2 (0.6, 2.5)
  • * Established smokers are students who reported having smoked ≥100 cigarettes and had smoked within the past 30 days at survey 3.

  • The logistic regression model also included controls for the following baseline variables: school, grade in school, school performance, parental education, ownership or willingness to use a cigarette promotional item, and susceptibility to smoking.