TABLE 2.

Cross-Sectional Association Between Parental Disapproval of Smoking and the Adjusted Odds of Being Higher on the Smoking Index, Controlling for Other Influences

Cross-Sectional Smoking ModelAdjusted Proportional Odds Ratios* (95% Confidence Interval)
Survey 1 ModelSurvey 2 ModelSurvey 3 Model
Parent strongly disapproves of smoking
 Neither disapprovesReferenceReferenceReference
 One disapproves0.7 (0.5, 0.9)1.0 (0.8, 1.3)0.9 (0.6, 1.1)
 Both disapprove0.5 (0.3, 0.8)0.4 (0.2, 0.6)0.4 (0.3, 0.5)
Control variables
Parent smoking
 NeitherReferenceReferenceReference
 One1.0 (0.8, 1.4)0.8 (0.6, 1.2)0.7 (0.5, 1.0)
 Both0.9 (0.7, 1.2)0.8 (0.6, 1.1)1.1 (0.9, 1.4)
Sibling smoking
 NoReferenceReferenceReference
 Yes2.2 (1.5, 3.2)2.1 (1.5, 22.9)2.5 (2.3, 2.7)
Friend smoking
 NoReferenceReferenceReference
 Yes8.0 (7.8, 8.2)4.9 (3.9, 6.2)4.1 (2.8, 6.1)
Sample size663760732
  • * The proportional odds ratio is the likelihood of a participant being higher on the smoking uptake index compared with the reference group.

  • All models also include controls for grade, gender, ownership or willingness to use a cigarette promotional item, perceived school performance, and parental education.