TABLE 1

Motor Milestones for Developmental Surveillance at Preventive Care Visitsa

AgeGross Motor MilestonesFine Motor Milestones
2 moLifts head and chest in prone
4 moRolls over prone to supine; supports on elbows and wrists in proneHands unfisted; plays with fingers in midline; grasps object
6 moRolls over supine to prone; sits without supportReaches for cubes and transfers; rakes small object with 4 fingers
9 mobPulls to stand; comes to sit from lying; crawlsPicks up small object with 3 fingers
1 yWalks independently; standsPuts 1 block in a cup; bangs 2 objects together; picks up small object with 2-finger pincer grasp
15 moWalks backward; runsScribbles in imitation; dumps small object from bottle, with demonstration
18 mobWalks up steps with hand heldDumps small object from bottle spontaneously; tower of 2 cubes; scribbles spontaneously; puts 10 blocks in a cup
2 yRides on toy without pedals; jumps upBuilds tower and horizontal train with 3 blocks
2.5 ybBegins to walk up steps alternating feetImitates horizontal and vertical lines; builds a train with a chimney with 4 blocks
3 yPedals; climbs on and off furnitureCopies a circle drawing; draws a person with head and one other body part; builds a bridge with 3 blocks
4 yClimbs stairs without support; skips on 1 footDraw a person with 6 parts, simple cross; buttons medium-sized buttons
  • Adapted from Capute AJ, Shapiro BK, Palmer FB, Ross A, Wachtel RC. Normal gross motor development: the influences of race, sex and socioeconomic status. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1985;27(5):635–643; Accardo PJ, Capute AJ. The Capute Scales: Cognitive Adaptive Test/Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale (CAT/CLAMS). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks; 2005; and Beery KE, Beery NA. The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (Beery VMI) Administration, Scoring and Teaching Manual. Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson Inc; 2004.

  • a These milestones generally represent mean age of performance of these skills.

  • b It is recommended that a standardized developmental test be performed at these visits.